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Subject: REPOST: The Controllers

Keywords: Originally posted to alt.conspiracy by Brad Pierce

Date: 4 Aug 93 03:20:56 GMT

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Here it is!!! I got the following message when I attempted to

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I don't know what to make of this article, but here goes...


>From att-mt!!pierce Mon Aug 2 21:34:49 1993

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From: (Brad Pierce)

Newsgroups: alt.conspiracy,alt.revisionism,alt.mindcontrol

Subject: The Controllers (LONG! 200K)

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Date: 3 Aug 93 01:34:49 GMT

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Below is a long and deeply paranoid paper by Martin Cannon. (The paper

was first posted without permission to USENET by James P. Galasyn and

was reposted without permission by Don Nellesen.) Among the 201

footnotes are citations of Holocaust revisionist Victor Marchetti (9,

31, 104) and of anti-fascist investigative journalist Chip Berlet

(164), citations of the supermarket tabloid "National Examiner" (144)

and of scientific journals.

DISCLAIMER: I recommend giving no greater credence to

Cannon's theory than one does to reports of little gray

persons cutting didoes with their interstellar hot rods and

farm animals with their unearthly shivs. It might be a good

concept for another boffo Oliver Stone movie, however.

What caught my attention was a section alleging ties between UFO cults

and Nazism. Cannon writes:

"Some abductees I have spoken to have been directed to

join certain religious/philosophical sects. These cults

often bear close examination.

"The leaders of these groups tend to be 'ex'-CIA

operatives, or Special Forces veterans. They are often

linked through personal relations, even though they

espouse widely varying traditions. I have heard

unsettling reports that the leaders of some of these

groups have used hypnosis, drugs, or 'mind machines' on

their charges. Members of these cults have reported

periods of missing time during ceremonies or 'study


"I strongly urge abduction researchers to examine closely

any small 'occult' groups an abductee might join. For

example, one familiar leader of the UFO fringe -- a man

well-known for his espousal of the doctrine of 'love and

light' -- is Virgil Armstrong, a close personal friend of

General John Singlaub, the notorious Iran-Contra player,

who recently headed the neo-fascist World Anti- Communist

League [...]

"Even more ominous than possible ties between UFO cults

and the intelligence community are the cults' links with

the shadowy I AM group, founded by Guy Ballard in the

1930s[180]. According to researcher David Stupple, 'If

you look at the contactee groups today, you'll see that

most of the stable, larger ones are actually neo-I AM

groups, with some sort of tie to Ballard's organization.'

[181] This cult, therefore, bears investigation.

"Guy Ballard's 'Mighty I AM Religious Activity,' grew, in

large part, out of William Dudley Pelly's Silver Shirts,

an American NAZI organization[182]. Although Ballard

himself never openly proclaimed NAZI affiliation, his

movement was tinged with an extremely right-wing

political philosophy, and in secret meetings he 'decreed'

the death of President Franklin Roosevelt[183]. The I AM

philosophy derived from Theosophy, and in this author's

estimation bears a more-than-cursory resemblance to the

Theosophically-based teachings that informed the

proto-NAZI German occult lodges[184].

"After the war, Pelley (who had been imprisoned for

sedition during the hostilities) headed an

occult-oriented organization called Soulcraft, based in

Noblesville, Indiana. Another Soulcraft employee was the

controversial contactee George Hunt Williamson (real

name: Michel d'Obrenovic), who co- authored UFOs

CONFIDENTIAL with John McCoy, a proponent of the theory

that a Jewish banking conspiracy was preventing

disclosure of the solution to the UFO mystery[185].

Later, Williamson founded the I AM-oriented Brotherhood

of the Seven Rays in Peru[186]. Another famed contactee,

George Van Tassel, was associated with Pelley and with

the notoriously anti-Semitic Reverend Wesley Swift

(founder of the group which metamorphosed into the Aryan


"The most visible offspring of I AM is Elizabeth Clare

Prophet's Church Universal and Triumphant, a group

best-known for its massive arms caches in underground

bunkers. CUT was recently exposed in COVERT ACTION

INFORMATION BULLETIN as a conduit of CIA funds[188], and

according to researcher John Judge, has ties to

organizations allied to the World Anti-Communist

League[189] Prophet is becoming involved in abduction

research and has sponsored present- ations by Budd

Hopkins and other prominent investigators. In his book


DON'T NEED THEM[sic][190], Virgil Armstrong directs

troubled abductees toward Prophet's group. (Perhaps not

insignificantly, he also suggests that abductees plagued

by implants alleviate their problem by turning to 'the I

AM force' within.[191])

"Another UFO channeller, Frederick Von Mierers, has

promulgated both a cult with a strong I AM

orientation[192] and an apparent con-game involving over-

appraised gemstones. Mierers is an anti-Semite who

contends that the Holocaust never happened and that the

Jews control the world's wealth.

"UFORUM is a flying saucer organization popular with Los

Angeles-area abductees; its founder is Penny Harper, a

member of a radical Scientology breakaway group which

connects the teachings of L. Ron Hubbard with

pronouncements against 'The Illuminati' (a mythical

secret society) and other BETES NOIR familiar from

right-wing conspiracy literature. Harper directs members

of her group to read THE SPOTLIGHT, an extremist tabloid

(published by Willis Carto's Liberty Lobby) which denies

the reality of the Holocaust and posits a 'Zionist'

scheme to control the world[193].

"More than one unwary abductee has fallen in with groups

such as those listed above. It isn't difficult to

imagine how some of these questionable groups might mold

an abductee's recollection of his experience -- and

perhaps help direct his future actions.

"Some modern abductees, with otherwise-strong claims,

claim encounters with blond, 'Nordic' aliens reminiscent

of the early contactee era. Surely, the 'Nordic'

appearance of these aliens sprang from the dubious

spiritual tradition of Van Tassell, Ballard, Pelley,

McCoy, etc. Why, then, are some modern abductees seeing

these very same other-worldly UEBERMENSCHEN?

"One abductee of my acquaintance claims to have had

beneficial experiences with these 'blond' aliens -- who,

he believes, came originally from the Pleiades.

Interestingly, in the late 1960s, the psychopathically

anti-Semitic Rev. Wesley Swift predicted this odd twist

in the abduction tale. In a broadcast 'sermon,' he spoke

at length about UFOs, claiming that there were 'good'

aliens and 'bad' aliens. The good ones, he insisted,

were tall, blond Aryans -- WHO HAILED FROM THE PLEIADES.

He made this pronouncement long before the current trends

in abduction lore.

"Could some of the abductions be conducted by an extreme

right-wing element within the national security

establishment? Disagreeable as the possibility seems, we

should note that the 'lunatic right' is represented in

all other walks of life; certainly hard-rightists have

taken positions within the military-intelligence complex

as well."

-------------------- REPRINTED WITHOUT PERMISSION --------------------


A New Hypothesis of Alien Abduction


Martin Cannon

I. Introduction

One wag has dubbed the problem "Terra and the Pirates."

The pirates, ostensibly, are marauders from another solar system; their

victims include a growing number of troubled human beings who insist that

they've been shanghaied by these otherworldly visitors. An outlandish

scenario -- yet through the works of such authors as Budd Hopkins[1] and

Whitley Strieber[2], the "alien abduction" syndrome has seized the public

imagination. Indeed, tales of UFO contact threaten to lapse into fashion-

ability, even though, as I have elsewhere noted[3], they may still inflict a

formidable social price upon the claimant.

Some time ago, I began to research these claims, concentrating my studies

on the social and political environment surrounding these events. As I

studied, the project grew and its scope widened. Indeed, I began to feel as

though I'd gone digging through familiar terrain only to unearth Gomorrah.

These excavations may have disgorged a solution.


Among ufologists, the term "abduction" has come to refer to an infinitely-

confounding experience, or matrix of experiences, shared by a dizzying number

of individuals, who claim that travellers from the stars have scooped them out

of their beds, or snatched them from their cars, and subjected them to

interrogations, quasi-medical examinations, and "instruction" periods.

Usually, these sessions are said to occur within alien spacecraft; frequently,

the stories include terrifying details reminiscent of the tortures inflicted

in Germany's death camps. The abductees often (though not always) lose all

memory of these events; they find themselves back in their cars or beds,

unable to account for hours of "missing time." Hypnosis, or some other

trigger, can bring back these haunted hours in an explosion of recollection --

and as the smoke clears, an abductee will often spot a trail of similar

experiences, stretching all the way back to childhood.

Perhaps the oddest fact of these odd tales: Many abductees, for all their

vividly-recollected agonies, claim to love their alien tormentors. That's

the word I've heard repeatedly: love.

Within the community of "scientific ufologists" -- those lonely, all-too

little-heard advocates of reasonable and open-minded debate on matters

saucerological -- these claims have elicited cautious interest and a commend-

able restraint from conclusion-hopping. Outside the higher realms of

scientific ufology, the situation is, alas, quite different. In the popular

press, in both the "straight" and sensationalist media, within that

journalistic realm where issues are defined and public opinion solidified

(despite a frequently superficial approach to matters of evidence and

investigation) abduction scenarios have elicited two basic reactions: that

of the Believer and the Skeptic.

The Believers -- and here we should note that "Believers" and "abductees"

are two groups whose memberships overlap but are in no way congruent --

accept such stories at face value. They accept, despite the seeming

absurdity of these tales, the internal contradictions, the askew logic of

narrative construction, the severe discontinuity of emotional response to the

actions described. The Believers believe, despite reports that their beloved

"space brothers" use vile and inhuman tactics of medical examination --

senseless procedures most of us (and certainly the vanguard of an advanced

race) would be ashamed to inflict on an animal. The Believers believe,

despite the difficulty of reconciling these unsettling tales with their own

deliriums of benevolent off-worlders.

Occasionally, the rough notes of a rationalization are offered: "The

aliens don't know what they are doing," we hear; or "Some aliens are bad."

Yet the Believers confound their own reasoning when they insist on ascribing

the wisdom of the ages and the beneficence of the angels to their beloved

visitors. The aliens allegedly know enough about our society to go about

their business undetected by the local authorities and the general public;

they communicate with the abductees in human tongue; they concern themselves

with details of the percipients' innermost lives -- yet they remain so

ignorant of our culture as to be unaware of the basic moral precepts concerning

the dignity of the individual and the right to self-determination. Such

dichotomies don't bother the Believers; they are the faithful, and faith is

assumed to have its mysteries. SANCTA SIMPLICITAS.

Conversely, the Skeptics dismiss these stories out of hand. They dismiss,

despite the intriguing confirmatory details: the multiple witness events,

the physical traces left by the ufonauts, the scars and implants left on the

abductees. The skeptics scoff, though the abductees tell stories similar in

detail -- even certain tiny details, not known to the general public.

Philip Klass is a debunker who, through his appearances on such television

programs as NOVA and NIGHTLINE, has been in a position to affect much of the

public debate on UFOs. In his interesting but poorly-documented work on

abductions[4], Klass claims that "abduction" is a psychological disease,

spread by those who write about it. This argument exactly resembles the

professional press-basher's frequent assertion that terrorism metastasizes

through media exposure. Yet for all the millions of words expectorated by

newsfolk on the subject of terrorism, terrorist actions remain quite rare,

as any statistician (though few politicians) will admit, and verifiable

linkage between crimes and their coverage remains to be found. For that

matter, there have been books -- bestsellers, even -- on unicorns and gnomes.

People who claim to see those creatures are few. Abductees are plentiful.

Both Believer and Skeptic, in my opinion, miss the real story. Both make

the same mistake: They connect the abduction phenomenon to the forty-year

history of UFO sightings, and they apply their prejudices about the latter

to the controversy about the former.

At first sight, the link seems natural. Shouldn't our thoughts about

UFOs color our thoughts about UFO abductions?


They may well be separate issues. Or, rather, they are connected only

in this: The myth of the UFO has provided an effective cover story for an

entirely different sort of mystery. Remove yourself from the Believer/Skeptic

dialectic, and you will see the third alternative.

As we examine this alternative, we will, of necessity, stray far from the

saucers. We must turn our face from the paranormal and concentrate on the

occult -- if, by "occult," we mean SECRET.

I posit that the abductees HAVE been abducted. Yet they are also spewing

fantasy -- or, more precisely, they have been given a set of lies to repeat

and believe. If my hypothesis proves true, then we must accept the following:

The kidnapping is real. The fear is real. The pain is real. The instruction

is real. But the little grey men from Zeti Reticuli are NOT real; they are

constructs, Halloween masks meant to disguise the real faces of the con-

trollers. The abductors may not be visitors from Beyond; rather, they may be

a symptom of the carcinoma which blackens our body politic.

The fault lies not in our stars, but in ourselves.


Substantial evidence exists linking members of this country's intelligence

community (including the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Advanvced

Research Projects Agency, and the Office of Naval Intelligence) with the

esoteric technology of MIND CONTROL. For decades, "spy-chiatrists" working

behind the scenes -- on college campuses, in CIA-sponsored institutes, and

(most heinously) in prisons -- have experimented with the erasure of memory,

hypnotic resistance to torture, truth serums, post-hypnotic suggestion, rapid

induction of hypnosis, electronic stimulation of the brain, non-ionizing

radiation, microwave induction of intracerebral "voices," and a host of even

more disturbing technologies. Some of the projects exploring these areas were


I have read nearly every available book on these projects, as well as the

relevant congressional testimony[5]. I have also spent much time in university

libraries researching relevant articles, contacting other researchers (who have

graciously allowed me access to their files), and conducting interviews.

Moreover, I traveled to Washington, DC to review the files John Marks compiled

when he wrote THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE"[6]. These files

include some 20,000 pages of CIA and Defense Department documents, interviews,

scientific articles, letters, etc. The views presented here are the result of

extensive and ongoing research.

As a result of this research, I have come to the following conclusions:

1. Although misleading (and occasionally perjured) testimony before

Congress indicated that the CIA's "brainwashing" efforts met with little

success[7], striking advances were, in fact, made in this field. As CIA

veteran Miles Copeland once admitted to a reporter, "The congressional

subcommittee which went into this sort of thing got only the barest glimpse."


2. Clandestine research into thought manipulation has NOT stopped, despite

CIA protestations that it no longer sponsors such studies. Victor Marchetti,

14-year veteran of the CIA and author of the renown expose, THE CIA AND THE

CULT OF INTELLIGENCE, confirmed in a 1977 interview that the mind control

research continues, and that CIA claims to the contrary are a "cover story."[9]

3. The Central Intelligence Agency was not the only government agency

involved in this research[10]. Indeed, many branches of our government took

part in these studies -- including NASA, the Atomic Energy Commission, as well

as all branches of the Defense Department.

To these conclusions I would append the following -- NOT as firmly-

established historical fact, but as a working hypothesis and grounds for


4. The "UFO abduction" phenomenon MIGHT be a continuation of clandestine

mind control operations.

I recognize the difficulties this thesis might present to those readers

emotionally wedded to the extraterrestrial hypothesis, or to those whose

political WELTANSHAUUNG disallows any such suspicions. Still, the open-

minded student of abductions should consider the possibilities. Certainly,

we are not being narrow-minded if we ask researchers to exhaust ALL terrestrial

explanations before looking heavenward.

Granted, this particular explanation may, at first, seem as bizarre as the

phenomenon itself. But I invite the skeptical reader to examine the work of

George Estabrooks, a seminal theorist on the use of hypnosis in warfare, and

a veteran of Project MKULTRA. Estabrooks once amused himself during a party

by covertly hypnotizing two friends, who were led to believe that the Prime

Minister of England had just arrived; Estabrooks' victims spent an hour

conversing with, and even serving drinks to, the esteemed visitor[11]. For

ufologists, this incident raises an inescapable question: If the Mesmeric arts

can successfully evoke a non-existent Prime Minister, why can't a represent-

ative from the Pleiades be similarly induced?

But there is much more to the present day technology of mind control than

mere hypnosis -- and many good reasons to suspect that UFO abduction accounts

are an artifact of continuing brainwashing/behavior modification experiments.

Moreover, I intend to demonstrate that, by using UFO mythology as a cover

story, the experimenters may have solved the major problem with the work

conducted in the 1950s -- "the disposal problem," i.e., the question of

"What do we do with the victims?"

If, in these pages, I seem to stray from the subject of the saucers, I plead

for patience. Before I attempt to link UFO abductions with mind control

experiments, I must first show that this technology EXISTS. Much of the

forthcoming is an introduction to the topic of mind control -- what it is, and

how it works.

II. The Technology


In the early days of World War II, George Estabrooks, of Colgate University,

wrote to the Department of War, describing in breathless terms the possible

uses of hypnosis in warfare[12]. The Army was intrigued; Estabrooks had a

job. The true history of Estabrooks' wartime collaboration with the CID,

FBI[13] and other agencies may never be told: After the war, he burned his

diary pages covering the years 1940-45, and thereafter avoided discussing his

continuing government work with anyone, even close members of the family[14].

Occasionally, he strongly intimated that his work involved the creation of

hypno-programmed couriers and hypnotically-induced split personalities, but

whether he succeeded in these areas remains a controversial point. Neverthe-

less, the eccentric and flamboyant Estabrooks remains a pivotal figure in the

early history of clandestine behavioral research.

Which is not to say that he worked alone. World War II was the first

conflict in which the human brain became a field of battle, where invading

forces were led by the most notable names in psychology and pharmacology. On

both sides, the war spurred furious efforts to create a "truth drug" for use

in interrogating prisoners. General William "Wild Bill" Donovan, director of

the OSS, tasked his crack team -- including Dr. Winifred Overhulser, Dr.

Edward Strecker, Harry J. Anslinger and George White -- to modify human

perception and behavior through chemical means; their "medicine cabinet"

included scopolamine, peyote, barbiturates, mescaline, and marijuana. (This

research had its amusing side: Donovan's "psychic warriors" conducted many

extensive and expensive trials before deciding that the best method of

administering tetrahydrocannibinol, the active ingredient in marijuana, was

via the cigarette. Any jazz musician could have told them as much[15].)

Simultaneously, the notorious NAZI doctors at Dachau experimented with

mescaline as a means of eliminating the victim's will to resist. Jews, slavs,

gypsies, and other "Untermenschen" in the camp were surreptitiously slipped the

drug; later, mescaline was combined with hypnosis[16]. The results of these

tests were made available to the United States after the War. [cf. Operation

PAPERCLIP, which transferred thousands of German and Japanese intelligence

researchers directly into the U.S. intelligence community. "Our Germans are

BETTER than their Germans!" - DR. STRANGELOVE -jpg]

In 1947, the Navy conducted the first known post-war mind control program,

Project CHAPTER, which continued the drug experiments. Decades later,

journalists and investigators still haven't uncovered much information about

this project -- or, indeed, about any of the military's other excursions into

this field. We know that the Army eventually founded operations THIRD CHANCE

and DERBY HAT; other project names remain mysterious, though the existence of

these programs is unquestionable. [? -jpg]

The newly-formed CIA plunged into this cesspool in 1950, with Project

BLUEBIRD, rechristened ARTICHOKE in 1951. To establish a "cover story" for

this research, the CIA funded a propaganda effort designed to convince the

world that the Communist Bloc had devised insidious new methods of re-shaping

the human will; the CIA's own efforts could therefore, if exposed, be explained

as an attempt to "catch up" with Soviet and Chinese work. The primary promoter

of this "line" was one Edward Hunter, a CIA contract employee operating under-

cover as a journalist, and, later, a prominent member of the John Birch

society. (Hunter was an OSS veteran of the China theatre -- the same spawning

grounds which produced Richard Helms, Howard Hunt, Mitch WerBell, Fred

Chrisman, Paul Helliwell and a host of other noteworthies who came to

dominate that strange land where the worlds of intelligence and right-wing

extremism meet[17].) Hunter offered "brainwashing" as the explanation for the

numerous confessions signed by American prisoners of war during the Korean War

and (generally) UN-recanted upon the prisoners' repatriation. These confes-

sions alleged that the United States used germ warfare in the Korean conflict,

a claim which the American public of the time found impossible to accept. Many

years later, however, investigative reporters discovered that Japan's germ

warfare specialists (who had wreaked incalculable terror on the conquered

Chinese during WWII) had been mustered into the American national security

apparat -- and that the knowledge gleaned from Japan's horrifying germ

warfare experiments probably WAS used in Korea, just as the "brainwashed"

soldiers had indicated[18]. Thus, we now know that the entire brainwashing

scare of the 1950s constituted a CIA hoax perpetrated upon the American

public: CIA deputy director Richard Helms admitted as much when, in 1963,

he told the Warren Commission that Soviet mind control research consistently

lagged years behind American efforts[19].

When the CIA's mind control program was transferred from the Office of

Security to the Technical Services Staff (TSS) in 1953, the name changed

again -- to MKULTRA[20]. Many consider this wide-ranging "octopus" project --

whose tentacles twined through the corridors of numerous universities and

around the necks of an army of scientists -- the most ominous operation in

CIA's catalogue of atrocity. Through MKULTRA, the Agency created an umbrella

program of a positively Joycean scope, designed to ferret out all possible

means of invading what George Orwell once called "the space between our ears"

(Later still, in 1962, mind control research was transferred to the Office

of Research and Development; project cryptonyms remain unrevealed[21].)

What was studied? Everything -- including hypnosis, conditioning, sensory

deprivation, drugs, religious cults, microwaves, psychosurgery, brain implants,

and even ESP. When MKULTRA "leaked" to the public during the great CIA

investigations of the 1970s, public attention focused most heavily on drug

experimentation and the work with ESP[22]. Mystery still shrouds another area

of study, the area which seems to have most interested ORD: psychoelectronics.

This research may prove key to our understanding of the UFO abduction



Perhaps the most interesting pieces of evidence surrounding the abduction

phenomenon are the intracerebral implants allegedly visible in the X-rays and

MRI scans of many abductees[23]. Indeed, abductees often describe operations

in which needles are inserted into the brain; more frequently still, they

report implantation of foreign objects through the sinus cavities. Many

abduction specialists assume that these intracranial incursions must be the

handiwork of scientists from the stars. Unfortunately, these researchers

have failed to familiarize themselves with certain little-heralded advances

in terrestrial technology.

The abductees' implants strongly suggest a technological lineage which can

be traced to a device known as a "stimoceiver," invented in the late '50s-

early '60s by a neuroscientist named Jose Delgado. The stimoceiver is a

miniature depth electrode which can receive and transmit electronic signals

over FM radio waves. By stimulating a correctly-positioned stimoceiver, an

outside operator can wield a surprising degree of control over the subject's


The most famous example of the stimoceiver in action occurred in a Madrid

bull ring. Delgado "wired" the bull before stepping into the ring, entirely

unprotected. Furious for gore, the bull charged toward the doctor -- then

stopped, just before reaching him. The technician-turned-toreador had halted

the animal by simply pushing a button on a black box, held in the hand[24].


remains the sole, full-length, popularly-written work on intracerebral implants

and electronic stimulation of the brain (ESB). (The book's ominous title and

unconvincing philosophical rationales for mass mind control prompted an

unfavorable public reaction -- which may have deterred other researchers from

publishing on this theme for a general audience.) While subsequent work has

long since superceded the techniques described in this book, Delgado's

achievements were seminal. His animal and human experiments clearly demon-

strate that the experimenter can electronically induce emotions and behavior:

Under certain conditions, the extremes of temperament -- rage, lust, fatigue,

etc. -- can be elicited by an outside operator as easily as an organist might

call forth a C-major chord.

Delgado writes: "Radio stimulation of different points in the amygdala and

hippocampus in the four patients produced a variety of effects, including

pleasant sensations, elation, deep, thoughtful concentration, odd feelings,

super relaxation, colored visions, and other responses."[26] The evocative

phrase "colored vision" clearly indicates remotely-induced hallucination; we

will detail later how these hallucinations may be "controlled" by an outside


Speaking in 1966 -- and reflecting research undertaken years previous --

Delgado asserted that his experiments "support the distasteful conclusion that

motion, emotion, and behavior can be directed by electrical forces and that

humans can be controlled like robots by push buttons."[27] He even prophesied

a day when brain control could be turned over to non-human operators, by

establishing two-way radio communication between the implanted brain and a


Of one experimental subject, Delgado notes that "the patient expressed the

successive sensations of fainting, fright and floating around. These

'floating' feelings were repeatedly evoked on different days by stimulation

of the same point..."[29] Ufologists may recognize the similarity of this

sequence of events to abductee reports of the opening minutes of their

experiences[30]. Under subsequent hypnosis, the abductee could be instructed

to misremember the cause of this floating sensation.

In a fascinating series of experiments, Delgado attached the stimoceiver

to the tympanic membrane, thereby transforming the ear into a sort of micro-

phone. An assistant would whisper "How are you?" into the ear of a suitably

"fixed" cat, and Delgado could hear the words over a loudspeaker in the next

room. The application of this technology to the spy trade should be readily

apparent. According to Victor Marchetti, The Agency once attempted a highly-

sophisticated extension of this basic idea, in which radio implants were

attached to a cat's cochlea, to facilitate the pinpointing of specific

conversations, freed from extraneous surrounding noises[31]. Such "advances"

exacerbate the already-imposing level of Twentieth-Century paranoia: Not only

can our phones be tapped and mail checked, but even TABBY may be spying on us!

Yet the ramifications of this technology may go even deeper than Marchetti

indicates. I presume that if a suitably-wired subject's inner ear can be made

into a microphone, it can also be made into a loudspeaker -- one possible

explanation for the "voices" heard by abductees[32]. Indeed, I have personally

viewed a strange, opalescent implant within the ear canal of an abductee. I

see no reason to ascribe this device to alien intrusion -- more than likely,

the "intruders" in this case were the technological inheritors of the Delgado

legacy. Indeed, not many years after Delgado's experiments with the cat,

Ralph Schwitzgebel devised a "bug-in-the-ear" via which the therapist -- odd

term, under the circumstances -- can communicate with his subject[33].

Other researchers have made notable contributions to this field.

Robert G. Heath, of Tulane University, who has implanted as many as 125

electrodes in his subjects, achieved his greatest notoriety by attempting to

"cure" homosexuality through ESB. In his experiments, he discovered that he

could control his patients' memory, (a feat which, applied in the ufological

context, may account for the phenomenon of "missing time"); he could also

induce sexual arousal, fear, pleasure, and hallucinations[34].

Heath and another researcher, James Olds[35], have independently illustrated

that areas of the brain in and near the hypothalamus have, when electronically

stimulated, what has been described as "rewarding" and "aversive" effects.

Both animals and men, when given the means to induce their own ESB of the

brain's pleasure centers, will stimulate themselves at a tremendous rate,

ignoring such basic drives as hunger and thirst[36]. (Using fixed electrodes

of his own invention, John C. Lilly had accomplished similar effects in the

early 1950s[37].) Anyone who has studied the abduction phenomenon will find

himself on familiar territory here, for the abductee accounts are replete with

stories of bewildering and inappropriate sexual response countered by extremely

painful stimuli -- operant conditioning, at its most extreme, and most

insidious, for here we see a form of conditioning in which the manipulator

renders himself invisible. Indeed, B.F. Skinner-esque aversive therapy,

remotely appiled, was Heath's prescription for "healing" homosexuality[38].

Ralph Schwitzgebel and his brother Robert have produced a panoply of

devices for tracking individuals over long ranges; they may be considered

the creators of the "electronic house arrest" devices recently approved by

the courts[39]. Schwitzgebel devices could be used for tracking all the

physical and neurological signs of a "patient" within a quarter of a mile[40],

thereby lifting the distance limitations which restricted Delgado.

In Ralph Schwitzgebel's initial work, application of this technology to

ESB seems to have been limited to cumbersome brain implants with protruding

wires. But the technology was soon miniaturized, and a scheme was proposed

whereby radio receivers would be mounted on utility poles throughout a

given city, thereby providing 24-hour-a-day monitoring capability[41]. Like

Heath, Schwitzgebel was much exercised about homosexuality and the use of

intracranial devices to combat sexual deviation. But he has also spoken

ominously about applying his devices to "socially troublesome persons"...

which, of course, could mean anyone[42].

Bryan Robinson, of the Yerkes primate laboratory has conducted fascinating

simian research on the use of remote ESB in a social context. He could cause

mothers to ignore their offspring, despite the babies' cries. He could turn

submission into dominance, and vice-versa[43].

Perhaps the most disturbing wanderer into this mind-field is Joseph A.

Meyer, of the National Security Agency, the most formidable and secretive

component of America's national security complex. Meyer has proposed implant-

ing roughly half of all Americans arrested -- not necessarily convicted --

of any crime; the numbers of "subscribers" (his euphemism) would run into the

tens of millions. "Subscribers" could be monitored continually by computer

wherever they went. Meyer, who has carefully worked out the economics of his

mass-implantation system, asserts that taxpayer liability should be reduced

by forcing subscribers to "rent" the implant from the State. Implants are

cheaper and more efficient than police, Meyer suggests, since the call to crime

is relentless for the poor "urban dweller" -- who, this spook-scientist admits

in a surprisingly candid aside, is fundamentally unnecessary to a post-

industrial economy. "Urban dweller" may be another of Meyer's euphemisms: He

uses New York's Harlem as his model community in working out the details of his

mind-management system[44].


If we are to take seriously abductee accounts of brain implants, we must

consider the possibility that the implanters, properly perceived, DON'T look

much like the "greys" pictured on Strieber's dustjackets. Instead, the

visitors may resemble Dr. Meyer and his brethren. We would thus have an

explanation for both the reports of abductee brain implants and, as we shall

see, the "scoop marks" and other scars visible on other parts of the abductees'

bodies. We would also have an explanation for the reports of individuals

suffering personality change after contact with the UFO phenomenon.

Skeptics might counter that the time factor of UFO abductions disallows

this possibility. If estimates of "missing time" are correct, the abductions

rarely take longer than one-to-three hours. Wouldn't a brain surgeon,

operating under less-than-ideal conditions (perhaps in a mobile unit) need

more time?

NO -- not if we accept the claims of a Florida doctor named Daniel Man.

He recently proposed a draconian solution to the overblown "missing children

problem," by suggesting a program wherein America's youngsters would be

implanted with tiny transmitters in order to track the children continuously.

Man brags that the operation can be done right in the office -- and would take

less than 20 minutes[45].

Conceivably, it might take a tad longer in the field.


The history of brain implantation, as gleaned from the open literature, is

certainly disquieting. Yet this history has almost certainly been censored,

and the dates manipulated in a nigh-Orwellian fashion. When dealing with

research funded by the engines of national security, one can never know the

true origin date of any individual scientific advance. However, if we listen

carefully to the scientists who have pioneered this research, we may hear

whispers, faint but unmistakable, hinting that remotely-applied ESB originated

earlier than published studies would indicate.

In his autobiography THE SCIENTIST, John C. Lilly (who would later achieve

a cultish reknown for his work with dolphins, drugs and sensory deprivation)

records a conversation he had with the director of the National Institute

of Mental Health -- in 1953. The director asked Lilly to brief the CIA, FBI,

NSA and the various military intelligence services on his work using electrodes

to stimulate directly the pleasure and pain centers of the brain. Lilly

refused, noting, in his reply:

Dr. Antoine Remond, using our techniques in Paris, has

demonstrated that this method of stimulation of the brain

can be applied to the human without the help of the neuro-

surgeon; he is doing it in his office in Paris without neuro-

surgical supervision. This means that anybody with the proper

apparatus can carry this out on a person covertly, with no

external signs that electrodes have been used on that person.

I feel that if this technique got into the hands of a secret

agency, they would have total control over a human being and

be able to change his beliefs extremely quickly, leaving

little evidence of what they had done[46].

Lilly's assertion of the moral high ground here is interesting. Despite

his avowed phobia against secrecy, a careful reading of THE SCIENTIST reveals

that he continued to do work useful to this country's national security appar-

atus. His sensory deprivation experiments expanded upon the work of ARTICHOKE's

Maitland Baldwin, and even his dolphin research has -- perhaps inadvertently

proved useful in naval warfare[47]. One should note that Lilly's work on

monkeys carried a "secret" classification, and that NIMH was a common CIA

funding conduit[48].

But the most important aspect of Lilly's statement is its date. 1953?

How far back does radio-controlled ESB go? Alas, I have not yet seen Remond's

work -- if it is available in the open literature. In the documents made

available to Marks, the earliest reference to remotely-applied ESB is a 1959

financial document pertaining to MKULTRA subproject 94. The general subproject

descriptions sent to the CIA's financial department rarely contain much

information, and rarely change from year to year, leaving us little idea as to

when this subproject began.

Unfortunately, even the Freedom of Information Act couldn't pry loose much

information on electronic mind control techniques, though we know a great deal

of study was done in these areas. We have, for example, only four pages on

subproject 94 -- by comparison, a veritable flood of documents were released on

the use of drugs in mind control. (Whenever an author tells us that MKULTRA

met with little success, the reference is to drug testing.) On this point, I

must criticize John Marks: His book never mentions that roughly 20-25 percent

of the subprojects are "dark" -- i.e., little or no information was ever made

available, despite lawyers and FOIA requests. Marks seems to feel that the

only information worth having is the information he received. We know,

however, that research into psychoelectronics was extensive indeed, statements

of project goals dating from ARTICHOKE and BLUEBIRD days clearly identify this

area as a high priority. Marks' anonymous informant, jocularly named "Deep

Trance," even told a previous interviewer that, beginning in 1963, CIA and the

military's mind control efforts strongly emphasized electronics[49]. I

therefore assume -- not rashly, I hope -- that the "dark" MKULTRA subprojects

concerned matters such as brain implants, microwaves, ESB, and related


I make an issue of the timing and secrecy involved in this research to

underscore three points: 1. We can never know with certainty the true origin

dates of the various brainwashing methods -- often, we discover that techniques

which seem impossibly futuristic actually originated in the 19th century.

(Pioneering ESB research was conducted in 1898, by J.R. Ewald,

professor of physiology at Straussbourg[50].) 2. The open literature almost

certainly gives a bowdlerized view of the actual research. 3. Lavishly-funded

clandestine researchers -- unrestrained by peer review or the need for strict

controls -- can achieve far more rapid progress than scientists "on the


Potential critics should keep these points in mind should they attempt to

invalidate the "mind control" thesis of UFO abductions by citing an abduction

account which antedates Delgado.


We have amply demonstrated, then, that as far back as the 1960s -- and

possibly earlier still -- scientists have had the capability to create implants

similar to those now purportedly visible in abductee MRI scans. Indeed, we

have no notion just how advanced this technology has become, since the popular

press stopped reporting on brain implantation in the 1970s. The research

has no doubt continued, albeit in a less public fashion. In fact, scientists

such as Delgado have cast their eye far beyond the implants; ESB effects can

now be elicited with microwaves and other forms of electromagnetic radiation,

used with and without electrodes.

So why -- if we take UFO abduction accounts at face value -- are the

"advanced aliens" using an old technology, an EARTH technology, a technology

which may soon be rendered obsolescent, if it hasn't been so rendered already?

I am reminded of the charming anachronisms in the old Flash Gordon serials,

where swords and spaceships clashed continually.

Do they also watch black-and-white television on Zeta Reticuli?


Hypnosis provides the (highly controversial) key which opens the door to

many abduction accounts[51]. And obviously, if my thesis is correct, hypnosis

plays a large part in the abduction itself. One thing we know with certainty:

Since the earliest days of project BLUEBIRD, the CIA's spy-chiatrists spent

enormous sums mastering Mesmer's art.

I cannot here give even a brief summary of hypnosis, nor even of the CIA's

studies in this area. (Fortunately, FOIA requests were rather more successful

in shaking loose information on this topic than in the area of psycho-

electronics.) Here, we will concentrate on a particularly intriguing

allegation -- one heard faintly, but persistently, for the past twenty years

by those who would investigate the shadow side of politics.

If this allegation proves true, hypnosis is NOT necessarily a person-to-

person affair.

The abductee -- or the mind control victim -- need not have physical

contact with a hypnotist for hypnotic suggestion to take effect; trance could

be induced, and suggestions made, via the intracerebral transmitters described

above. The concept sounds like something out of Huxley's or Orwell's most

masochistic fantasies. Yet remote hypnosis was first reported -- using

allegedly parapsychological means -- in the early 1930s, by L.L. Vasilev,

Professor of Physiology in the University of Leningrad[52]. Later, other

scientists attempted to accomplish the same goal, using less mystic means.

Over the years, certain journalists have asserted that the CIA has mastered

a technology call RHIC-EDOM. RHIC means "Radio Hypnotic Intracerebral

Control." EDOM stands for "Electronic Dissolution of Memory." Together, these

techniques can -- allegedly -- remotely induce hypnotic trance, deliver

suggestions to the subject, and erase all memory for both the instruction

period and the act which the subject is asked to perform.

RHIC uses the stimoceiver, or a microminiaturized offspring of that tech-

nology to induce a hypnotic state. Interestingly, this technique is also

reputed to involve the use of INTRAMUSCULAR implants, a detail strikingly

reminiscent of the "scars" mentioned in Budd Hopkins MISSING TIME. Apparently,

these implants are stimulated to induce a post-hypnotic suggestion.

EDOM is nothing more than missing time itself -- the erasure of memory from

consciousness through the blockage of synaptic transmission in certain areas of

the brain. By jamming the brain's synapses through a surfeit of acetocholine,

neural transmission along selected pathways can be effectively stilled.

According to the proponents of RHIC-EDOM, acetocholine production can be

affected by electromagnetic means. (Modern research in the psycho-physio-

logical effects of microwaves confirm this proposition.)

Does RHIC-EDOM exist? In our discussion of Delgado's work, I have already

cited a strange little book (published in 1969) titled WERE WE CONTROLLED?,

written by one Lincoln Lawrence, a former FBI agent turned journalist. (The

name is a pseudonym; I know his real identity.) This work deals at length with

RHIC-EDOM; a careful comparison of Lawrence's work with MKULTRA files declas-

sified ten years later indicates a strong possibility that the writer did

indeed have "inside" sources.

Here is how Lawrence describes RHIC in action:

It is the ultra-sophisticated application of post-hypnotic

suggestion TRIGGERED AT WILL [italics in original] by radio

transmission. It is a recurring hypnotic state, re-induced

automatically at intervals by the same radio control. An

individual is brought under hypnosis. This can be done either

with his knowledge -- or WITHOUT it by use of narco-hypnosis,

which can be brought into play under many guises. He is then

programmed to perform certain actions and maintain certain

attitudes upon radio signal[53].

Other authors have mentioned this technique -- specifically Walter Bowart

(in his book OPERATION MIND CONTROL) and journalist James Moore, who, in a

1975 issue of a periodical called MODERN PEOPLE, claimed to have secured a

350-page manual, prepared in 1963, on RHIC-EDOM[54]. He received the manual

from CIA sources, although -- interestingly -- the technique is said to have

originated in the military.

The following quote by Moore on RHIC should prove especially intriguing

to abduction researchers who have confronted odd "personality shifts" in


Medically, these radio signals are directed to certain

parts of the brain. When a part of your brain receives a

tiny electrical impulse from outside sources, such as vision,

hearing, etc.,an emotion is produced -- anger at the sight of

a gang of boys beating an old woman, for example. The same

emotion of anger can be created by artificial radio signals

sent to your brain by a controller. You could instantly feel

the same white-hot anger without any apparent reason[55].

Lawrence's sources imparted an even more tantalizing -- and frightening --


...there is already in use a small EDOM generator-transmitter

which can be concealed on the body of a person. Contact with

this person -- a casual handshake or even just a touch --

transmits a tiny electronic charge plus an ultra-sonic signal

tone which for a short while will disturb the time orientation

of the person affected[56].

If RHIC-EDOM exists, it goes a long way toward providing an earthbound

rationale for alien abductions -- or, at least, certain aspects of them. The

phenomenon of "missing time" is no longer mysterious. Abductee implants,

both intracerebral and otherwise, are explained. And note the reference to

"recurring hypnotic state, reinduced automatically by the same radio command."

This situation may account for "repeater" abductees who, after their initial

encounter, have regular sessions of "missing time" and abduction -- even while

a bed-mate sleeps undisturbed.

At present, I cannot claim conclusively that RHIC-EDOM is real. To my

knowledge, the only official questioning of a CIA representive concerning

these techniques occurred in 1977, during Senate hearings on CIA drug testing.

Senator Richard Schweicker had the following interchange with Dr. Sidney

Gottlieb, an important MKULTRA administrator:

SCHWEICKER: Some of the projects under MKULTRA involved

hypnosis, is that correct?


SCHWEICKER: Did any of these projects involve something

called radio hypnotic intracerebral control, which is a

combination, as I understand it, in layman's terms, of radio

transmissions and hypnosis.

GOTTLIEB: My answer is "No."

SCHWEICKER: None whatsoever?

GOTTLIEB: Well, I am trying to be responsive to the

terms you used. As I remember it, there was a current

interest, running interest, all the time in what effects

people's standing in the field of radio energy have, and

it could easily have been that somewhere in many projects,

someone was trying to see if you could hypnotize someone

easier if he was standing in a radio beam. That would

seem like a reasonable piece of research to do.

Schweicker went on to mention that he had heard testimony that radar (i.e.,

microwaves) had been used to wipe out memory in animals; Gottlieb responded,

"I can believe that, Senator."[57]

Gottlieb's blandishments do not comfort much. For one thing, the good

doctor did not always provide thoroughly candid testimony. (During the same

hearing he averred that 99 percent on the CIA's research had been openly

published; if so, why are so many MKULTRA subprojects still "dark," and why

does the Agency still go to great lengths to protect the identities of its

scientists?[58]) We should also recognize that the CIA's operations are

compartmentalized on a "need-to-know" basis; Gottlieb may not have had access

to the information requested by Schweicker. Note that the MKULTRA rubric

circumscribed Gottlieb's statement: RHIC-EDOM might have been the focus of

another program. (There were several others: MKNAOMI, MKACTION, MKSEARCH,

etc.) Also keep in mind the revelation by "Deep Trance" that the CIA

concentrated on psychoelectronics AFTER the termination of MKULTRA in 1963.

Most significantly: RHIC-EDOM is described by both Lawrence and Moore as a

product of MILITARY research; Gottlieb spoke only of matters pertaining to CIA.

He may thus have spoken truthfully -- at least in a strictly technical sense --

while still misleading the Congressional interlocutors.

Personally, I believe that the RHIC-EDOM story deserves a great deal of

further research. I find it significant that when Dr. Petter Lindstrom

examined X-rays of Robert Naesland, a Swedish victim of brain-implantation, the

doctor authoritatively cited WERE WE CONTROLLED? in his letter of response[59].

This is the same Dr. Lindstrom noted for his pioneering use of ultrasonics in

neurosurgery[60]. Lincoln Lawrence's book has received a strong endorsement


Bowart's OPERATION MIND CONTROL contains a significant interview with an

intelligence agent knowledgeable in these areas. Granted, the reader has every

right to adopt a skeptical attitude toward information culled from anonymous

sources; still, one should note that this operative's statements confirm, in

pertinent part, Lawrence's thesis[61].

Most importantly: The open literature on brain-wave entrainment and the

behavioral effects of electromagnetic radiation substantiates much of the RHIC-

EDOM story -- as we shall see.


Robert Anton Wilson, an author with a devoted cult following, recently has

taken to promoting a new generation of "mind machines" designed to promote

creativity, stimulate learning, and alter consciousness -- i.e., provide a

drug-less high. Interestingly, these machines can also induce "Out-of-Body-

Experiences," in which the percipient mentally "travels" to another location

while his body remains at rest[62]. This rapidly-developing technology has

spawned a technological equivalent to the drug culture; indeed, the aficionados

of the electronic buzz even have their own magazine, REALITY HACKERS. [Now

defunct. -jpg] I strongly suspect that we will hear much of these machines in

the future.

One such device is called the "hemi-synch." This headphone-like invention

produces slightly different frequences in each ear; the brain calculates the

difference between these frequencies, resulting in a rhythm known as the

"binaural beat." The brain "entrains" itself to this beat -- that is, the

subject's EEG slows down or speeds up to keep pace with its electronic

running partner[63].

The brain has a "beat" of its own.

This rhythm was first discovered in 1924 by the German psychiatrist Hans

Berger, who recorded cerebral voltages as part of a telepathy study[64]. He

noted two distinct frequencies: alpha (8-13 cycles per second), associated

with a relaxed, alert state, and beta (14-30 cycles per second), produced

during states of agitation and intense mental concentration. Later, other

rhythms were noted, which are particularly important for our present purposes:

theta (4-7 cycles per second), a hypnogogic state, and delta (.5 to 3.5 cycles

per second), generally found in sleeping subjects[65].

The hemi-synch -- and related mind-machines -- can produce alpha or theta

waves, on demand, according to the operator's wishes. A suitably-entrained

brain is much more responsive to suggestion, and is even likely to experience

vivid hallucinations.

I have spoken to several UFO abductees who describe a "stereophonic sound"


"encounters." Of course, one usually administers the hemi-synch via head-

phones, but I see no reason why the effect cannot be transmitted via the above-

described stimoceiver. Again, I remind the reader of the abductee with an

implant just inside her ear canal.

There's more than one way to entrain a brain. Michael Hutchison's excellent

book MEGA BRAIN details the author's personal experiences with many such

devices -- the Alpha-stim, TENS, the Synchro-energizer, Tranquilite, etc. He

recounts dazzling, Dali-esque hallucinations, as a result of using this mind-

expanding technology; moreover, he offers a seductive argument that these

devices may represent a true breakthrough in consciousness-control, thereby

fulfilling the dashed dream of the hallucinogenic '60s.

I wish to avoid a knee-jerk Luddite response to these fascinating wonder-

boxes. At the same time, I recognize the dangers involved. What about the

possibility of an outside operator literally "changing our minds" by altering

our brainwaves without our knowledge or permission? If these machines can

induce a hypnotic state, what's to stop a skilled hypnotist from making use

of this state?

Granted, most of these devices require some physical interaction with the

subject. But a tool called the Bio-Pacer can, according to its manufacturer,

produce a number of mood altering frequencies -- WITHOUT attachment to the

subject. Indeed, the Bio-Pacer III (a high-powered version) can affect an

entire room. This device costs $275, according to the most recent price

sheet available[66]. What sort of machine might $27,500 buy? Or $275,000?

What effects, what ranges might a million-dollar machine be capable of?

The military certainly has that sort of money.

And they're certainly interested in this sort of technology, according to

Michael Hutchison. His interview with an informant named Joseph Light elicited

some particularly provocative revelations. According to Light:

There are important elements in the scientific community,

powerful people, who are very much interested in these areas...

but they have to keep most of their work secret. Because as

soon as they start to publish some of these sensitive things,

they have problems in their lives. You see, they work on

research grants, and if you follow the research being done,

you find that as soon as these scientists publish something

about this, their research funds are cut off. There are areas

in bioelectric research where very simple techniques and

devices can have mind-boggling effects. Conceivably, if you

have a crazed person with a bit of a technical background, he

can do a lot of damage[67].

This last statement is particularly evocative. In 1984, a violent neo-NAZI

group called The Order (responsible for the murder of talk-show host Alan Berg)

established contact with two government scientists engaged in clandestine

research to project chemical imbalances and render targeted individuals docile

via certain frequencies of electronic waves. For $100,000 the scientists were

willing to deliver this information[68].

Thus, at least one group of crazed individuals almost got the goods.


Every Senator and Congressional representative has a "wavie" file. So do

many state representatives. Wavies have even pled their case to private

institutions such as the Christic Institute[69].

And who are the wavies?

They claim to be victims of clandestine bombardment with non-ionizing

radiation -- or microwaves. They report sudden changes in psychological

states, alteration of sleep patterns, intracerebral voices and other sounds,

and physiological effects. Most people never realize how many wavies there are

in this country. I've spoken to a number of wavies myself.

Are these troubled individuals seeking an exterior rationale for their

mental problems? Maybe. Indeed, I'm sure that such is the case in many

instances. But the fact is that the literature on the behavioral effects of

microwaves, extra-low-frequencies (ELF) and ultra-sonics is such that we

cannot blithely dismiss ALL such claims.

For decades, American science and industry tried to convince the population

that microwaves could have no adverse effects on human beings at sub-thermal

levels -- in other words, the attitude was, "If it can't burn you, it can't

hurt you." This approach became increasingly difficult to defend as reports

mounted of microwave-induced physiological effects. Technicians described

"hearing" certain radar installations; users of radar telescopes began

developing cataracts at an appallingly high rate[70]. The Soviets had long

recognized the strange and sometimes subtle effects of these radio frequencies,

which is why their exposure standards have always been much stricter.

Soviet microwave bombardment of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow prompted the

Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Project PANDORA (later renamed),

whose ostensible goal was to determine whether these pulsations (reportedly

10 cycles per second, which puts them in the alpha range) could be used for the

purposes of mind control. I suspect that the "war on Tchaikowsky Street," as

I call it[71], was used, at least in part, as a cover story for DARPA mind

control research, and that the stories floated in the news (via, for example,

Jack Anderson's column) about Soviet remote brainwashing served the same

propaganda purposes as did the bleatings of Edward Hunter during the 1950s.[72]

What can low-level microwaves do to the mind?

According to a DIA report released under the Freedom of Information Act[73],

microwaves can induce metabolic changes, alter brain functions, and disrupt

behavior patterns. PANDORA discovered that pulsed microwaves can create leaks

in the blood/brain barrier, induce heart seizures, and create behavioral

disorganization[74]. In 1970, a RAND Corporation scientist reported that

microwaves could be used to promote insomnia, fatigue, irritability, memory

loss, and hallucinations[75].

Perhaps the most significant work in this area has been produced by Dr. W.

Ross Adey at the University of Southern California. He determined that

behavior and emotional states can be altered without electrodes -- simply by

placing the subject in an electromagnetic field. By directing a carrier

frequency to stimulate the brain and using amplitude modulation to "shape" the

wave into a mimicry of a desired EEG frequency, he was able to impose a 4.5

cps theta rhythm on his subjects -- a frequency which he previously measured

in the hippocampus during avoidance learning. Thus, he could externally

condition the mind towards an aversive reaction[76]. (Adey has also done

extensive work on the use of electrodes in animals[77].) According to another

prominent microwave scientist, Allen Frey, other frequencies could -- in

animal studies -- induce docility[78]. [cf USP #3,884,218 by Robert


HUMAN BEING, granted 20 May 1975; ABSTRACT: A method of inducing sleep in the

human being wherein an audio signal is generated comprising a familiar pleasing

repetitive sound modulated by an EEG sleep pattern. -jpg]

The controversial researcher Andrijah Puharich asserts that "a weak (1 mW)

4 Hz magnetic sine wave will modify human brain waves in 6 to 10 seconds. The

psychological effects of a 4 Hz sine magnetic wave are negative -- causing

dizzyness, nausea, headache, and can lead to vomiting." Conversely, an 8 Hz

magnetic sine wave has beneficial effects[79]. Though some writers question

Puharich's integrity (perhaps correctly, considering his involvement in the

confused tale of Uri Geller), his claims here seem in line with the findings of

less-flamboyant experimenters.

As investigative journalist Anne Keeler writes:

Specific frequencies at low intensities can predictably

influence sensory processes...pleasantness-unpleasantness,

strain-relaxation, and excitement-quiescence can be created

with the fields. Negative feelings and avoidance are strong

biological phenomena and relate to survival. Feelings are

the true basis of much "decision-making" and often occur as

subthreshold [i.e. subliminal -jpg] impressions...Ideas

INCLUDING NAMES [my italics] [Cannon's italics -jpg] can be

synchronized with the feelings that the fields induce[80].

Adey and compatriots have compiled an entire library of frequencies and

pulsation rates which can affect the mind and nervous system. Some of these

effects can be extremely bizarre. For example, engineer Tom Jarski, in an

attempt to replicate the seminal work of F. Cazzamali, found that a particular

frequency caused a ringing sensation in the ears of his subjects -- who felt

strangely compelled to BITE the experimenters![81]. On the other hand, the

diet-conscious may be intrigued by the finding that rats exposed to ELF waves

failed to gain weight normally[82].

For our present purposes, the most significant electromagnetic research

findings concern microwave signals modulated by hypnoidal EEG frequencies.

Microwaves can act much like the "hemi-synch" device previously described --

that is, they can entrain the brain to theta rhythms[83]. I need not emphasize

the implications of remotely synchronizing the brain to resonate at a frequency

conducive to sleep, or to hypnosis.

Trance may be remotely induced -- but can it be directed? Yes. Recall the

intracerebral voices mentioned earlier in our discussion of Delgado. The same

effect can be produced by "the wave." Frey demonstrated in the early 1960s

that microwaves could produce booming, hissing, buzzing, and other intra-

cerebral static (this phenomenon is now called "the Frey effect"); in 1973,

Dr. Joseph Sharp, of the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, expanded on

Frey's work in an experiment where the subject -- in this case, Sharp himself--

"heard" and understood spoken words delivered via a pulsed-microwave analog of

the speaker's sound vibrations[84].

Dr. Robert Becker comments that "Such a device has obvious applications in

covert operations designed to drive a target crazy with 'voices' or deliver

undetectable instructions to a programmed assassin."[85] In other words, we

now have, AT THE PUSH OF A BUTTON, the technology either to inflict an

electronic GASLIGHT -- or to create a true MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE. Indeed, the

former capability could effectively disguise the latter. Who will listen to

the victims, when electronically-induced hallucinations they recount exactly

parallel the classical signals of paranoid schizophrenia and/or temporal lobe


Perhaps the most ominous revelations, however, concern the mysterious work

of J.F. Schapitz, who in 1974 filed a plan to explore the interaction of

radio frequencies and hypnosis. He proposed the following:

In this investigation it will be shown that the spoken

word of the hypnotist may be conveyed by modulated electro-


HUMAN BRAIN [my italics] -- i.e., without employing any

technical devices for receiving or transcoding the messages

and without the person exposed to such influence having a

chance to control the information input consciously.

He outlined an experiment, innocent in its immediate effects yet chilling

in its implications, whereby subjects would be implanted with the subconscious

suggestion to leave the lab and buy a particular item; this action would be

triggered by a certain cue word or action. Schapitz felt certain that the

subjects would rationalize the behavior -- in other words, the subject would

seize upon any excuse, however thin, to chalk up his actions to the working of

free will[86]. His instincts on this latter point coalesce perfectly with

findings of professional hypnotists[87].

Schapitz's work was funded by the Department of Defense. Despite FOIA

requests, the results have never been publicly revealed[88].


I must again offer a caveat about possible disparities between the

"official" record of electromagnetism's psychological effects and the hidden

history. Once more, we face a question of timing. How long ago did this

research REALLY begin?

In the eary years of this century, Nikola Tesla seems to have stumbled

upon certain of the behavioral effects of electromagnetic exposure[89].

Cazamalli, mentioned earlier, conducted his studies in the 1930s. In 1934,

E.L. Chaffe and R.U. Light published a paper on "A Method for the Remote

Control of Electrical Stimulation of the Nervous System."[90] From the very

beginning of their work with microwaves, the Soviets explored the more subtle

physiological effects of electromagnetism -- and despite the bleatings of

certain right-wing alarmists[91] that an "electromagnetic gap" separates us

from Soviet advances, East European literature in this area has been closely

monitored for decades by the West. ARTICHOKE/BLUEBIRD project outlines,

dating from the early 1950s, prominently mention the need to explore all

possible uses of the electromagnetic spectrum.

Another point worth mentioning concerns the combination of EMR and miniature

brain electrodes. The father of the stimoceiver, Dr. J.M.R. Delgado, has

recently conducted experiments in which monkeys are exposed to electromagnetic

fields, thereby eliciting a wide range of behavioral effects -- one monkey

might fly into a volcanic rage while, just a few feet away, his simian partner

begins to nod off. Fascinatingly, when monkeys with brain implants felt "the

wave," the effects were greatly intensified. Apparently, these tiny electrodes

can act as AMPLIFIERS of the electromagnetic effect[92].

This last point is important to our "alien abduction" thesis. Critics

might counter that any burst of microwave energy powerful enough to have truly

remote effects would probably also create a thermal reaction. That is, if a

clandestine operator propagated a "wave" from outside an abductee's bedroom

(say, from a low-flying helicopter, or from a truck travelling alongside the

subject's car), the power necessary to do the job might be such that the

microwave would cook the target before it got a chance to launder his thoughts.

Our abductee would end up like the victim of the microwave "hit" in the finale

of Jerzy Kozinsky's COCKPIT.

It's a fair criticism. But Delgado's work may give us our solution. Once

an abductee has been implanted -- and if we are to trust hypnotic regression

accounts of abductees at all, the first implanting session may occur in

childhood -- the chip-in-the-brain would act an an intensifier of the signal.

Such an individual could have any number of "UFO" experiences while his or her

bed partner dozes comfortably.

Furthermore, recent reports indicate that a "waver" can achieve pinpoint

accuracy without the use of Delgado-style implants. In 1985, volunteers at the

Midwest Research Institute in Kansas City, Missouri, were exposed to microwave

beams as part of an experiment sponsored by the Department of Energy and the

New York State Department of Health. As THE ARIZONA REPUBLIC[93] described the

experiment, "A matched control group sat IN THE SAME ROOM without being

bombarded by non-ionizing radiation." [My italics.] Apparently, one can focus

"the wave" quite narrowly -- a fact which has wide implications for abductees.

III. Applications

So we now have some idea of the tools available to the "spy-chiatrists."

How have these tools been used?

This question necessarily involves some detective work. The Central

Intelligence Agency, under duress, provided some, though not enough, documen-

tation of its efforts to commandeer "the space between our ears." We know that

these efforts were extensive, long-term, and at least partially successful. We

know also that these experiments used human subjects. But who? When?

One paradox of this line of inquiry is that, for many readers, the victims

elicit sympathy only insofar as they remain anonymous. Intellectually, we

realize that MKULTRA and its allied projects must have affected hundreds,

probably thousands, of individuals. Yet we react with deep suspicion

whenever one of these individuals steps forward and identifies himself, or

whenever an independent investigator argues that mind control has directed some

newsworthy person's otherwise inexplicable actions. Where, the skeptic may

rightfully ask, is the documentation supporting such accusations? Most of the

MKULTRA "paper trail" was (allegedly) burnt at Richard Helms' order; what's

left has been censored, leaving black ink smudges wherever the names originally

appeared. Claimed mind control victims can, for the most part, only give us

testimony -- and how reliable can such testimony be, especially in light of the

fact that one purpose of MKULTRA was to induce insanity? Anyone asserting that

he was victimized by the program might well be seeking an extrinsic excuse for

his own psychopathology. If you say that you are a manufactured madman, you

were probably mad to begin with: Catch 22.

When John Marks wrote THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN CANDIDATE" he received

numerous letters from people insisting that they had been drugged, "waved," or

otherwise abused by the CIA or the military. Most of these communications went

directly into his crank file. Perhaps many deserved that destination; I know

of at least one that did not[94].

Marks did, however, devote much attention to Val Orlikov, a former "patient"

of perhaps the most notorious figure in the annals of American medical crime:

Dr. Ewen Cameron, a CIA-funded scientist heading the Allan Memorial

Institute at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Cameron, a highly-respected

mental health researcher[95], experimented with a technique he called "psychic

driving," a brainwashing program which involved inflicting upon a subject an

endless tape loop blaring selected messages, 16-to-24 hours a day, combined

with massive electroshock and LSD. The project's "guinea pigs" were patients

who had come to Allan Memorial with relatively minor psychological complaints.

Cameron's experiments failed and his theories were discredited, which may

explain why the CIA and its apologists now feel relatively comfortable

discussing the Frankensteinian efforts at Allan Memorial, as opposed to more

successful work elsewhere.

Orlikov's testimony has received much respectful attention from those

writers who have examined MKULTRA, and correctly so. When I studied the files

at the National Security Archives, I was particularly keen to read her original

letters to John Marks, for these pages had led to the unmasking of an

especially heinous CIA project. The letters, interestingly enough, proved just

as vague, disjointed, and bizarre as similar correspondence which researchers

routinely dismiss. Orlikov can't be blamed for the hazy nature of her

recollections; a certain amount of fog is to be expected, given the nature of

the crime perpetrated against her. The important point is that her story,

ultimately, was found to be true. All of which leads me to wonder: Why did

HER claims prompt investigation when those of others prompt only dismissal?

Perhaps the answer lies in the fact that Orlikov's husband became a Canadian

Member of Parliament. Any victims of CIA experimentation who wish to be taken

seriously ought, perhaps, first make sure to marry well.

Of course, we can easily forgive previous writers and readers whose

researches into MKULTRA have been biased in favor of complacency[96]. But we

can't let this natural prejudice cripple our present investigation. Let us

examine, then, a few of the "horror stories" from the mind control literature

and highlight possible correlations to abductee testimony.


As mentioned previously, I have not delved much into the subject of hypnosis

in this paper -- primarily because of space and time limitations, but also

because discussions of the possibilities of hypnosis PER SE tend to cloud the

issue of its use in conjunction with the above-mentioned electronic techniques.

Obviously, however, hypnosis is a major weapon in the mind controller's

armament; in a forthcoming full-length work, I intend to deal with this subject

at much greater length.

Needless to say, one of the primary objectives of MKULTRA and related

projects was to determine whether one could hypnotically induce someone to

commit an anti-social act. This possibility remains one of the most hotly-

debated issues in hypnosis, for conventional wisdom asserts that no individual

can be hypnotized to commit an action which violates his interior moral code.

Martin Orne, editor of the presitigious INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND

EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS agrees with this axiom[97], and he is in a position to

codify much of the established view on this topic. Orne, however, is a

veteran of MKULTRA, and furthermore seems to have lied -- at least in his

original communications -- to author John Marks about his witting involvement

in subproject 94[98]. While I respect much of Orne's ground-breaking work,

his pronouncements do not hold, for this layman, an Olympian unassailability.

To be sure, many other hypnosis experts, untainted by Company connections,

also discount the possibility that anti-social actions can be induced. But a

number of highly-experienced professionals -- including Milton Kline, William

Kroger, George Estabrooks, John Watkins, and Herbert Spiegel -- have argued

that such actions can, at least to some degree, be elicited by an outside


Occasionally, claims of hypnotically-induced anti-social behavior find

their way into the courtroom; one such case, which led to the incarceration of

the hypnotist, was the Palle Hardrup affair. This incident occurred in

Denmark in 1951[99]. Palle Hardrup robbed a bank, killing a guard in the

process, and later claimed that he had been instructed to do so by the

hypnotist Bjorn Nielsen. Nielsen eventually confessed to having engineered

the crime as a test of his hypnotic abilities.

The most significant aspect of this incident concerns the "pose" Nielsen

adopted to work his malicious designs. During the hypnosis sessions, Nielsen

hypnotically suggested that he was Hardrup's "guardian angel," represented

by the letter X. Hardrup testified that "There is another room next door

where Nielsen and I go and talk on our own. It is there that my guardian

spirit usually comes and talks to me. Nielsen says that X has a task for me."

One of these tasks was arranging for Hardrup's girlfriend to have sex with

the hypnotist. The other tasks, he mentioned, included robbery and murder.

Nielsen convinced his victim that "X" wanted the robbery funds to be used for

worthwhile political goals. The end, Hardrup was told, justified the means.

Compare this scenario to that encountered in the typical contactee case,

in which alien "guardians" convince their victims/subjects that the encounter

will eventually serve some unspecified "higher purpose." Indeed, in my

interviews with abductees who have established a "long-term" relationship with

their visitors, I have found that some of them originally believed themselves

in contact with Hardrup-like angelic guardians. Only in recent years was the

"angel" pose discarded and the true "alien" form revealed.

Thus we have one possible means of overcoming the proposition that hypnosis

cannot induce anti-social behavior. If a hypnotist lacks scruples, and has

access to a particularly susceptible subject, he can induce a MISPERCEIVED

REALITY. Actions which we would abhor in an everyday context become acceptable

in specialized circumstances: A citizen who could never commit murder on a

surburban street might, if drafted into an army, kill on the field of battle.

In hypnosis, the mind becomes that battlefield. In the words of Dr. John


We behave on the basis of our perceptions. If our perceptions

of a situation can be altered so as to cause us to misconstrue it,

or to develop a false belief, then our behavior in relation to it

will be drastically altered. It is precisely in the area of

changing perceptions that the hypnotic modality demonstrates its

most powerful effects. Hallucinations both under hypnosis, and

posthypnotic, can easily be induced in the suggestible subject.

He can be made to ignore painful stimuli, be apparently unable


[my italics]. Moreover, attitudes and beliefs can be initiated

in him which are quite abnormal and often contrary to those

which he previously held[100].

If traditional hypnosis, unaided, can achieve such changes in perception,

one can only imagine the possibilities inherent in the combination of hypnotic

techniques with the psychoelectronic research previously described.

Scientists such as Orne and Milton Erickson[101] have taken issue with

Watkins' assertions. But the Hardrup case would appear to bear Watkins out.

If someone can be convinced that he, like Jeanne D'Arc, acts under the

influence of a supernatural higher power, then previously unthinkable

capabilitites may be evinced and "impossible" actions carried forth. Indeed,

when we consider the extreme personality changes -- and occasionally, the

heinous actions, elicited by leaders of certain cults, and occult groups[102],

we understand the desirability of installing a hypnotic "cover story" within a

supernatural matrix. People will do for God -- or the Devil, or the Space

Brothers -- what they would not do otherwise.

The date of the Hardrup affair corresponds to the institution of BLUEBIRD/

ARTICHOKE; it doesn't require much imagination to see how this case could have

served as a model to the scientists researching those and subsequent projects.


According to declassified documents in the Marks files, a major difficulty

faced by the MKULTRA researchers concerned the "disposal problem." What to do

with the victims of CIA-sponsored electroshock, hypnosis, and drug experiment-

ation? The Company resorted to distressing, but characteristic, tactics: They

disposed of their human guinea pigs by incarcerating them in insane asylums, by

performing icepick lobotomies, and by ordering "executive actions."[103]

A more sophisticated solution had to be found. One of the goals of the

CIA's mind control efforts was the erasure of memory via hypnosis (and drugs,

electronics, lobotomies, etc.); not only would this hide what occurred during

the experimental indoctrination/programming sessions, it would prove useful in

the field. "Amnesia was a big goal," confirms Victor Marchetti, who points out

its usefulness in dealing with contract agents: "After you've done it, the

agent doesn't even know what he's send him in, he does the job.

When he comes out, you clean his head out."[104]

The big problem: Despite hypnotically-induced amnesia, there would be memory

leaks -- snippets of the repressed material would arise spontaneously, in

dreams, as flashbacks, etc. A proposed solution: Give the subject a "screen

memory," a false story; thus, even if he starts to recall the material, he will

recall it incorrectly.

Even the conservative Dr. Orne notes that:

A S [subject] who is able to develop good posthypnotic amnesia

will also respond to suggestions to remember events which did not

actually occur. On awakening, he will fail to recall the real

events of the trance and will instead recall the suggested events.

If anything, this phenomenon is easier to produce than total

amnesia, perhaps because it eliminates the subjective feeling of

an empty space in memory.[105]

Not only would the screen memories fill in the uncomfortable blanks in the

subjects' recollection, they would protect against revelation. One fear of

the MKULTRA scientists was that a hypno-programmed individual used as, say, a

courier, could be un-programmed by another hypnotist, perhaps working for the

enemy. Thus, the MKULTRA scientists decided to instill multiple personalities

-- multiple cover stories, if you will -- to confuse any "unauthorized"


One case using this technique centered on an assassin named Luis Castillo,

who, after his capture in the Philippines, was extensively de-briefed and

studied by experts in the employ of the National Bureau of Investigation, that

country's equivalent to our FBI. Castillo was discovered to have had at least

FOUR separate personalities hypnotically instilled; each personality could be

triggered by a specific cue. In one state, he claimed to be Sgt. Manuel Angel

Ramirez, of the Strategic Air Tactical Command in South Vietnam; supposedly,

"Ramirez" was the illegitimate son of a certain pipe-smoking, highly-placed CIA

official whose initials were A.D.[107] Another personality claimed to be one

of John F. Kennedy's assassins.

The main hypnotist involved with this case labelled these hypnotic alter-

egos "Zombie states." The report on the case stated that "The Zombie pheno-

menon referred to here is a somnambulistic behavior displayed by the subject

in a conditioned response to a series of words, phrases, and statements,

apparently unknown to the subject during his normal waking state."

Upon Castillo's repatriation to the United States, the FBI claimed that he

had fabricated the story. In his book OPERATION MIND CONTROL, Walter Bowart

makes a convincing case against the FBI's claims. Certainly, many aspects of

the Castillo affair argue for his sincerity -- including his hypnotically-

induced insensitivity to pain[108], his maintenance of the story (or stories)

even when severly inebriated, and his apparently programmed suicide attempts.

If Castillo told the truth, as I believe he did, then he manifested both

hypnotically-induced multiple personality and pseudomemory. The former remains

controversial; the latter has been repeatedly replicated in experimental


This point is vitally important for students of the abduction phenomenon.

We CANNOT assume the accuracy of abduction descriptions given during subsequent

hypnotic regression. Moreover, we cannot even assume the accuracy of spon-

taneously-arising recollections (i.e., abduction memories not elicited through

hypnotic regression). Indeed, responsible skeptics have argued that hypnotic

regression may prove inadvertently harmful, in that it may lock in place a

false remembrance. (Note, however, that other psychiatric professionals

consider hypnotic regression the best technique, however flawed, in unlocking

amnesia[110]. For my part, I maintain an ambivalent and cautious attitude

toward the use of hypnosis in abductee work.)

Granted, it is all too easy for the debunkers to cry "confabulation" to

dismiss hypnotic testimony which does not conform to our preconceptions about

the possible; I do not intend to make this same error. Whenever skeptics

offer the phenomenon of pseudomemory to rationalize abduction claims, they cite

experimental situations in which PSEUDOMEMORY WAS ORIGINALLY CREATED BY A

HYPNOTIST[111]. These experiments can not be cited as proof that an individual

abductee spontaneously conjured up a fantasy (which just happens to correspond

to the details of hundreds of similar "fantasies"). Rather, laboratory studies

of pseudomemory creation prove MY point: Pseudomemory can be induced BY


In other words, an abductee may talk of aliens -- when the reality was

something else entirely.

In correspondence with me, a noted abduction researcher wrote of an instance

in which an abductee recounted seeing a helicopter during his experience; as

the abductee testimony progressed, the helicopter turned into a UFO. During one

of the (quite few) regression sessions I attended, I heard an exactly similar

narrative. Hopkins would argue that the helicopter was a "screen memory"

hiding the awful reality of the UFO encounter. But does Occam's razor really

cut that way? Shouldn't we also consider the possibility that the object in

question really WAS a helicopter -- which the abductee was instructed to recall

as a UFO?


Among the released BLUEBIRD/ARTICHOKE/MKULTRA papers was the following

handwritten memorandum, unsigned and undated:

I have developed a technic which is safe and secure (free

from international censorship). It has to do with the

conditioning of our own people. I can accomplish this as a

one-man job.

The method is the production of hypnosis by means of

simple oral medication. Then (with NO further medication)

the hypnosis is re-enforced daily during the following three

or four days.

Each individual is conditioned against revealing any

information to an enemy, even though subjected to hypnosis

or drugging. If preferable, he may be conditioned to give

FALSE information rather than NO information.

In the margin of this document, one of Marks' assistants wrote, "Is this

Wendt?" The reference here is to G. Richard Wendt, a professor

employed by project CHATTER who, in 1951, led both his Naval employers and the

CIA on a mind control merry-goose-chase, when an experiment similar to that

described above failed to produce results[113]. Even if the above memorandum

DOES describe an operational failure (and the tactics described in this memo

do not seem very feasible to me), we should not rest complacent. We now know

that, in at least ONE case, more sophisticated techniques made the above

scenario a reality.

I refer to the case of Candy Jones.

Her story has filled at least one book[114] and ought, one day, to give rise

to another. Obviously, I cannot here give all the details of this fascinating

and frightening narrative. But a precis is mandatory.

Ms. Jones (born Jessica Wilcox) achieved star status as a model during

World War II, and later established her own modelling agency. An FBI man

requested her to allow her place of business to be used as a "mail drop" for

the Bureau and "another government agency" (presumably, the CIA); Candy, deeply

patriotic, accepted the proposition gladly. Toiling on the fringes of the

clandestine world, Candy eventually came into contact with a "Dr. Gilbert

Jensen," who worked, in turn, with a "Dr. Marshall Burger." (Both names are

pseudonyms.) Unknown to her, these doctors had been employed as "spy-

chiatrists" by the CIA. Using a job interview as a cover, Jensen induced

hypnosis, found Candy to be a particularly responsive subject -- and proceeded

to use her as other scientists would use a rhesus monkey. She became a test

subject for the CIA's mind control program.

Her job -- insofar as it is known -- was to provide a clandestine courier

service[115]. Estabrooks had outlined the basic idea years earlier: Induce

hypnosis via a disguised technique, give the messenger information to

memorize, hypnotically "erase" the message from conscious memory, and install

a post-hypnotic suggestion that the message (now buried within the sub-

conscious) will be brought forth only upon a specific cue. If the hypnotist

can create such a courier, ultra-security can be guaranteed; even torture won't

cause the messenger to tell what he knows -- because he doesn't know that he

knows it[116]. According to the highly respected Dr. Milton Kline, "Evidence

really does exist that has not been published" proving that Estabrooks' perfect

secret agent could be successfully evoked[117].

Candy was one such success story. Success, in this context, means that she

could be -- and was -- brutally tortured and abused while running assignments

for the CIA. All the MKULTRA toys were brought into play: hypnosis, drugs,

conditioning -- and electronics. Using these devices, Jensen and Burger

managed to:

-- install a "duplicate personality,"

-- create amnesia of both the programming sessions and the field assignments,

-- turn Candy into a vicious, hate-mongering bigot, the better to isolate her

from the rest of humanity (previously, her associates considered her

noteworthy for her racial tolerance; her modelling agency was one of the

first to break the color barrier), and

-- program her to commit suicide at the end of her usefulness to the Agency.

The programming techniques used on her were flawed. She breached security

when she married famed New York radio personality John Nebel[118], who, using

hypnotic regression, elicited the long-repressed truth. Eventually, the

"Other Candy" was bade farewell, and the programming broken.

Skeptics might find Candy's story as incredible as the abduction accounts--

after all, an amateur had conducted her hypnotic regression, and the possi-

bility of confabulation always lurks. Nevertheless, I feel that the veracity

of her narrative has been established beyond reasonable doubt. In her hypnotic

regression sessions, she recalled being programmed at a government-connected

institute in northern California -- which, as John Marks' investigators later

proved, was indeed heavily involved with government-funded brainwashing

research[119]. Marks himself believes Candy's story -- not least, because the

details of the programming methods used on her were substantiated by documents

released AFTER her book was published[120]. Interviews with Milton Kline,

Dr. Frances Jakes, John Watkins and others provided the testimony that the

programming of Candy Jones was feasible -- and Deep Trance substantiated the


Recently, the case has received important "indirect" confirmation:

Investigators interested in follow-up research have filed FOIA requests with

the CIA for all papers relating to Candy Jones. The agency admits that it has

a substantial file on her, but refuses to release any part of it. If her tale

is false, then why would the CIA be so reluctant to deliver the information?

Indeed, why would they have a file in the first place?[122]

The final confirmation of Candy's tale requires a revelation -- one which I

make with some trepidation, even though the individual named is dead.

"Marshall Burger" was really Dr. William Kroger[123].

Kroger, long associated with the espionage establishment, had written the

following in 1963:

...a good subject can be hypnotized to deliver secret

information. The memory of this message could be covered

by an artificially-induced amnesia. In the event that he

should be captured, he naturally could not remember that he

had ever been given the message...however, since he had

been given a post-hypnotic suggestion, the message would be

subject to recall through a specific cue.[124]

If Candy confabulated her story, why did she name this particualr scientist,

who, writing theoretically in 1963, predicted the subsequent events in her


After L'AFFAIR JONES, Kroger transferred his base of operations to UCLA --

specifically, to the Neuropsychiatric Institute run by Dr. Louis Jolyon West,


with a preface by Martin Orne (another MKULTRA veteran) and H.J. Eysenck (still

another MKULTRA veteran). The finale of this opus contains chilling hints

of the possibilites inherent in combining hypnosis with ESB, implants, and

conditioning -- though Kroger is careful to point out that "we are not

concerned that man might be conditioned by rewards and punishments through

electronic brain stimulation to be controlled like robots."[127] HE may not

be concerned -- but perhaps WE ought to be.

The control of Candy Jones gives us much information useful to our "alien

abduction" hypothesis.

1. Her torture sessions -- inflicted during her programming by her CIA

masters, and on missions by as-yet mysterious persons -- seem strikingly like

the otherwise senselessly painful "examinations" allegedly conducted aboard

alien spacecraft.

2. Her personality shifts roughly parallel those experienced by certain UFO


3. Despite her brutalization, she remained "loyal" to Drs. Jensen and

Burger. This bewildering behavior reminds me of my first abductee interviews,

during which I heard ghastly descriptions of UFO torture sessions -- followed

by protestations of limitless love for the alien pain-mongers.

4. Like many abductees, Candy had to attend regular "conditioning" sessions.

Repeated exposure to the programming is necessary to effect continuous control.

5. To maintain their hammerlock on her mind, Candy's handlers programmed her

to remain isolated. Specifically, they instilled a deep paranoia toward other

human beings; "outsiders" were probable enemies, out to use or abuse her. I

have seen this pattern consistently in my own work with abductees[128]. Skep-

tics would argue that unreasonable abductee fears probably indicate paranoid

schizophrenia--one symptom of which can, indeed, be hallucinatory experiences.

But most abductees are easily hypnotized, while paranoid schizophrenics are

extremely difficult to "put under," according to Dr. Edward Simpson-Kallas, a

psychiatrist with wide experience in the area of forensic hypnosis[129]. If,

however, those unreasonable fears had been hypnotically induced, the contra-

diction is resolved.

6. Candy was the product of an unhappy childhood, hence her propensity

toward multiple personality[130]. Many of the "repeater" abductees I have

interviewed had similarly depressing family histories[131].

7. The story of Candy Jones also has what we might call a "negative

relevance" to the abduction accounts. Because the Controllers did not

establish a hypnotic cover story, or pseudomemory, the true facts of the case

managed to percolate into her conscious mind. No matter how thorough the post-

hypnotic amnesia, leaks will occur -- hence the need for a false memory, to

fill the gap of recollection. The CIA learns from its mistakes. Candy's

hypno-programming broke down in early 1973 -- the year the "alien disguise"

became (if my hypothesis proves correct) standard operating procedure[132].

(Milton Kline accepted the Candy Jones story, but considered the job amateurish

and inconsistent with the best work done at that time[133]. Perhaps the major

fault was the lack of a pseudomemory cover story?)


"Underground base" rumors are as hot as jalapenos in the UFO field right

now, and several of these stories involve abductions.

For example, a sideshow of the famous Bentwaters UFO case involves the

abduction of an airman named Larry Warren to an underground cavity beneath the

military base. There, while in what he later described as "a bit of a drugged

state," he saw aliens and human beings -- military figures -- working side-by-


I have spoken to another abductee, Nancy Wright, who was allegedly taken to

an underground chamber ten miles north of Edwards AFB, California. As this

was a multiple-witness event, and Ms. Wright has not attempted to capitalize on

the story for financial gain, I tend to credit her story[135]. According to

abduction researcher Miranda Parks, an elderly couple living in the vicinity

was also abducted in an exactly similar fashion[136].

In 1979, Paul Bennewitz and Leo Sprinkle researched a particularly

controversial abduction involving a young woman (name unrevealed) who was

apparently taken to a facility where aliens processed fluids and body parts

from a cattle mutilation. This investigation seems to have led to the

government harassment of Bennewitz, in which some form of mind control (or, as

I have previously referred to it, "electronic GASLIGHT") may have played a


How do we account for these tales of alleged alien skullduggery carried out

in conjunction with the military? I, for one, cannot credit the generally-

unsubstantiated tales of "cosmic conspiracy" now promulgated by ex-intelligence

agents such as John Lear and William Cooper. While I cannot assert insincerity

on the part of these men, I often wonder if they have been used as conduits --

witting or unwitting -- in a sophisticated disinformation scheme.

A simpler, though no less chilling, explanation for the "base" abductions

may be found in the story of Dr. Louis Jolyon West, now notorious for

his participation in MKULTRA experiments with LSD[138]. Inspired by VIOLENCE

AND THE BRAIN (a book by Drs. Frank Ervin and Vernon H. Mark

which ascribed inner city turmoil to a "genetic defect" within rebellious

blacks), West proposed, in 1973, a Center for the Study and Reduction of

Violence, where potentially violent individuals could be dealt with

prophylactically. ["I was cured, all right." - A CLOCKWORK ORANGE -jpg]

And who were these individuals? According to West's proposal, the note-

worthy factors indicating a violent predisposition were "sex (male), age

(youthful), ethnicity (black) and urbanicity." How to deal with them? "

implanting tiny electrodes deep within the brain, electrical activity can be

followed in areas that cannot be measured from the surface of the is

even possible to record bioelectrical changes in the brains of freely-moving

subjects, through the use of remote monitoring techniques..." By monitoring

the subjects' EEGs remotely, potentially violent episodes could be identified.

For our purposes, the most significant aspect of this proposal had to do

with location. In a secret communication to Dr. J.M. Stubblebine,

director of the California State Department of Health (fortunately, this

missive was "leaked" to the public), West disclosed that he intended to house

his Center in an abandoned Nike missile base, whose location was accessible

yet relatively remote. "The site is securely fenced," West wrote. "Compara-

tive studies could be carried out there, in an isolated but convenient

location, of experimental model programs, for the alteration of undesirable


Public outcry stopped these plans. But was this scheme truly eliminated?

Or was it merely modified, stripped (temporarily) of its overtly racial

overtones and relocated to some less-accessible spot?

One thing is certain: A CIA "spy-chiatrist" favored secret behavior control

experimentation in a remote military installation. Perhaps someone within the

espionage establishment's mind-modification divisions still thinks highly of

the idea. If so, the disposal problem would once again rear its ugly head,

should "visitors" to these installations ever reappear in outside society.

Again, a hypno-programmed cover story -- the less believable, the better --

would prove invaluable.


Many books have been written about abductees, yet few exist about the

victims of mind control. I cannot understand this situation; the reality of

UFOs is still controversial, yet the existence of mind control was verified

in two (heavily compromised) congressional investigations and in thousands of

FOIA documents. Nevertheless, the abductees find many a sympathetic ear, while

those few who dare to proclaim themselves the victims of known government

programs rarely find anyone to hear them out. Our prejudices on this score are

regrettable, for if we listened to the "controllees" we would hear many details

strikingly similar to those mentioned by UFO abductees.

Two cases in point: Martti Koski and Robert Naeslund.

Koski, a Finnish citizen, claims to have been a victim of mind control

experimentation while visiting Canada. Shortly after his experience began, he

attempted to broadcast his situation to the world and draw attention to his

plight. Few listened. Many of his details were bizarre, and not being a

native speaker of English, he could not express himself convincingly to those

he approached for help. Yet many aspects of his story correspond closely to

known details of MKULTRA and related programs.

Naeslund, a Swedish citizen, tells a similar story. Moreover, his claims

were backed by special evidence: X-rays revealed an implant in his brain.

Naeslund actually went to the extreme of having his implant tested by

electronic technicians employed by Hewlett-Packard. A Greek surgeon performed

the necessary trepanation to remove the device.

Many aspects of the Koski and Naeslund stories correspond to my hypothesis.

Koski, for example, was at one point told that the doctors afflicting him were

actually "aliens from Sirius." At another point, he was led to believe that

he was under direction of "the Lord." (As I previously indicated, manipulation

of religious imagery could help induce anti-social behavior; the subject's

super-ego can be nullified if he believes that he follows commands from on

high. Such manipulation may explain the more bizarre aspects of Betty

Andreasson Luca's abduction[140].)

Naeslund's implant was originally placed through his nasal cavity. He first

realized that something terrible had happened to him after an experience of

missing time, followed by an INEXPLICABLE NOSEBLEED.

This detail will be instantly familiar to anyone who has studied abductions;

I have encountered it in my own conversations with abductees. For an excellent

example in the UFO literature, I refer the reader to the case of Susan Ransted,

as detailed in Kevin D. Randle's THE UFO CASEBOOK[141]; the background of

alleged contactee Diane Tessman is also noteworthy in this regard[142].

Intriguingly, I have located a reference in the open literature to the use, in

animal study, of nasally-implanted electrodes for the measurement of electro-

magnetic radiation effects[143].

There are other claimed mind control victims bearing evidence of implants;

note, especially, the fascinating case of James Petit, a CIA-connected pilot

and alleged brainwashing alumnus; X-rays of his cranium have revealed abductee-

style implants -- fitting, perhaps, since his body bears abductee-style scars.

[144] Conversely, certain abductees will, if allowed a thorough and sympa-

thetic hearing, deliver testimony strongly agreeing with Koski's narrative.


The bizarre story of Rex Niles and his sister (not named in news accounts)

may shed interesting light on a variety of abductee cases, particularly that

of Betty and Barney Hill[145]. Niles, the high-rolling owner of a Woodland

Hills defense subcontracting firm (Rex Rep) was fingered by authorities

investigating defense industry kickbacks. He became an extraordinarily

cooperative witness in the investigation -- until he was targeted by his

enemies, who allegedly used psychoelectronics as harassment.

The following excerpt from the LOS ANGELES TIMES article on Niles is

particularly compelling:

He [Niles] produced testimony from his sister, a Simi

Valley woman who swears that helicopters have repeatedly

circled her home. An engineer measured 250 watts of

microwaves in the atmosphere outside Niles' house and


[my italics].

A former high school friend, Lyn Silverman, claimed

that her home computer went haywire when Niles stepped

close to it.

No aliens in this story -- yet how similar it is to tales of alien

abduction! The low-flying helicopters, of course, are frequently reported

by abduction victims -- the Betty Andreasson Luca case provides the best-

known example[146]. The haywire electronics equipment is also frequently

encountered in putative abduction cases; I have spoken (independently) to

three women who claimed to have been able to disturb or shut off televisions

and stereos simply by walking past the devices; one woman even claimed she

had switched off her TV simply by pointing at it.

But the radioactive disc is especially intriguing. As former FBI agent

Ted Gunderson recently explained to my associate Alexander Constantine,

magnetic radioactive discs have long been used by the clandestine services as

cancer-inducing "silent killers" -- i.e., as tools of assassination. Not only

that. The disc calls to mind one little-remembered detail of the Hill case --

the dozen-or-so circular "shiny spots," each the size of a silver dollar, found

on the trunk of her car directly after the abduction. A compass needle reacted

wildly when placed near these spots. Could they have marked the location where

an electromagnetic or radioactive device, similar to that found by Niles, was

placed on the car? (Such a device might have been held to the spot magnetic-

ally, hence the circular impressions.) If so, then the disorienting EMR could

have helped induce the Hills' "UFO sighting."


Some time ago, I attended hypnotic regression sessions in which the

subject -- a claimed UFO abductee -- recalled undergoing a mysterious "brain

operation" at a veteran's hospital in California. The operation was performed

by human beings, not aliens. Interestingly, this same hospital was mentioned

in two other cases I encountered. These other claims were not made by

abductees, but by people alleged to have been victims of mind control experi-


One of these claimants, a former Navy SEAL who undertook numerous dangerous

missions in Vietnam, favorably impressed me with the wealth of detail in his

story[147]. This individual -- I've taken to calling him "the trained SEAL"--

had received specialized combat training at a military base in California; he

claims that at one point during this training he was drugged, hypnotized,

possibly placed under some form of electronic control, and subjected to the

extremes of pain/pleasure operant conditioning. One peculiar detail of his

story concerns the "reward" aspect of the conditioning: When properly

acquiescent, he was given unlimited sexual access to a woman who, the SEAL

avers, was herself the victim of brainwashing.

Unbelievable as this last claim may seem, I found it oddly resonant when I

later interviewed a prominent abductee in the Southern California area, who

bravely offered me details on a puzzling, albeit quite delicate, incident in

her past. Still an attractive woman, she recalled for me -- indeed, seemed

strangely compelled to describe -- an early love affair with a young soldier

training at a military base near her home. She cannot recall the soldier's

name. All she remembers is that one day he started LIVING AT HER FAMILY'S

HOUSE; she has no memory of how the arrangement began, and her parents have

never felt comfortable discussing the matter. Although unattracted to this

soldier, she felt compelled to become intimate with him, adopting a pliant,

obeisant attitude that was quite out of character for her. Later, the soldier

went on to covert missions in Vietnam.

Of course, a young person's psycho-sexual development is never smooth, and

the incident related above may merely have represented one peculiarly upsetting

bump in that notoriously rough road. Still, some of the details of this story

-- particularly the parents' attitude, the woman's personality shift, and her

subsequent memory lapses -- are striking, and I treat with respect the abduc-

tee's intuition that this minor enigma in her personal history could, if

properly understood, shed light on her later "missing time" experiences.

Could the "trained SEAL" have been right? Was there, IS there, a coterie

of hypno-programmed soldiers conducting particularly hazardous missions? And

do the programmers have at their disposal a "ladies' auxiliary," so to speak,

of hypnotized camp followers?

If the SEAL's story stood alone, skeptics could easily dismiss it

(provided they did not sit, as I did, face-to-face with the story's teller,

listening to all the grisly and unsettling details). But other veterans have

added their voices to this grim tale. Daniel Sheehan, of the Christic

Institute, claims that his organization has spoken to half-a-dozen individuals

with narratives similar to my SEAL informant. All had received "processing,"

so to speak, within the context of standard military training; after pro-

gramming and specialized combat instruction by mercenaries, the recruits were

placed "on hold," to be used as situations arose -- and some of those

situations occurred within the United States[148].

Walter Bowart began his own researches into mind control by placing an ad in

SOLDIER-OF-FORTUNE-style publications, asking for correspondence from veterans

who experienced inexplicable lapses in memory or strange behavior modification

techniques while serving in Vietnam; he received over 100 replies. Bowart

devoted an entire chapter to one of these respondents -- an Air Force veteran

named David, who ended his four-year tour of duty recalling only that he had

spent the time "having fun, skin diving, laying on the beach, collecting

shells...It never dawned on me until later that I must have DONE something

while I was in the service." (An obvious example of screen memory.) He was

also "assigned" a girlfriend whose name he cannot now recall, despite the

length and deep intimacy of the affair[149]. The parallels to the SEAL's story

and the abductee's account should be obvious.

We even have a confession, of sorts, from a scientist who specialized in one

aspect of this sort of training. Lt. Commander Thomas Narut, of the

U.S. Naval Hospital at the NATO headquarters in Naples, Florida, admitted

during a lecture in Oslo that recruits in Naples underwent CLOCKWORK-ORANGE-

style behavior modification sessions. Trainees would be strapped into chairs

with their eyelids clamped open while watching films of industrial accidents

and African circumcision ceremonies -- films frequently used by psychologists

as a means of inducing stress in experimental situations. Unlike the

protagonist in A CLOCKWORK ORANGE, who learned revulsion at the sight of

violence, Narut's soldiers were taught to accept and enjoy bloodshed, to view

it with equanimity. Similar techniques were used to dehumanize potential

enemies. Graduates of this program became, in Narut's words, "hit men and

assassins," to be placed in American embassies throughout the world.

When questioned by reporters about these claims, the American government

denied the story; Narut -- after a long incommunicado period and apparent

coercion -- later explained to journalists that he had merely spoken

theoretically. If so, why did he originally describe the behavior modification

procedure as an ongoing program?[150]

And while it may seem frivolous to return to the subject of abductions after

examining such grim data, I should remind the reader of the many abduction

accounts in which abductees recall being forced to watch certain stress-

inducing motion pictures. The aliens, it seems, have learned a few lessons

from Dr. Narut.

Narut, of course, concentrated on selective programming of individual

American soldiers; on the other side of the mind control spectrum, Defense

Department specialists have also concentrated on methods to render entire

enemy battalions "combat ineffective." Electromagnetic weaponry, intended to

wipe out the aggression of the enemy, is the province of DARPA, under the

direction of Dr. Jack Verona. These projects remain fairly

mysterious; we do know, however, that one operation, SLEEPING BEAUTY, employed

the services of Dr. Michael Persinger, a scientist who has expressed

interesting views regarding UFOs.

Persinger discovered a method of using ELF waves to induce the brain's MAST

cells to release histamine; should a battlefield commander wish to subject his

enemy to mass bouts of vomiting, Persinger's trick could do the job even

faster than a Tobe Hooper movie. The method works on animals. "The question,"

writes mind control researcher Larry Collins, "is how to get from point A to

point B without violating one of the most rigorous commandments of Government

ethics -- thou shalt not conduct experiments like that on human beings."[151]

If Collins had studied the record a little more carefully, he might realize

that the government hasn't always regarded this commandment as something

graven in stone. As Milton Kline put it:

Ethical factors involved in most research would preclude

having positive results. Those ethical factors don't always

hold with government research. THE RESEARCH WHICH HAS GIVEN


CONSTRAINTS[152]. [my italics]


Hypnosis hard-liners of the Orne school would almost certainly dismiss the

foregoing veterans' accounts of the use of hypnosis, drugs and behavioral

conditioning on American fighting men. Why, the skeptics would ask, would

anyone attempt to create a "Manchurian Candidate" when the military services,

using entirely conventional means, can create a "Rambo"? There have always

been recruits for even the most hazardous duties; what need of hypnosis?

The need, in fact, is absolute.

The modern battlefield has little place for the traditional soldier.

Advanced weaponry requires an increasing level of technical sophistication,

which in turn requires a cool-headed operator. But the all-too-human

combatant -- though capable of extraordinary acts of courage under the most

stressful conditions imaginable -- does not possess inexhaustible reserves of

SANG-FROID. Eventually, breakdowns will occur. Per-capita psychiatric

casualties have increased dramatically in each successive American conflict.

As Richard Gabriel, the excellent historian of the role of psychiatry in

warfare, writes:

Modern warfare has become so lethal and so intense that

only the already insane can endure it...Modern war requiring

continuous combat will increase the degree of fatigue on the

soldier to heretofore unknown levels. Physical fatigue --

especially the lack of sleep -- will increase the rate of

psychiatric casualties enormously. Other factors -- high

rates of indirect fire, night fighting, lack of food, constant

stress, large numbers of casualties -- will ensure that the

number of psychiatric casualties will reach disastrous pro-

portions. And the number of casualties will overburden the

medical structure to the point of collapse.

The ability to treat psychiatric casualties will all but

disappear. There will be no safe forward areas in which to

treat soldiers debilitated by mental collapse. The technology

of modern war has made such locations functionally obsolete...[153]

According to Gabriel, the military intends to meet this challenge by

creating "the chemical soldier," a designer-drugged zombie in fighting man's


On the battlefields of the future we will witness a true

clash of ignorant armies, armies ignorant of their own

emotions and even of the reasons for which they fight.

Soldiers on all sides will be reduced to fearless chemical

automatons who fight simply because they can do nothing

else...Once the chemical genie is out of the bottle, the

full range of human mental and physical actions become

targets for chemical control...Today it is already possible

by chemical or electrical stimulation to increase the

aggression levels of the human being by stimulating the

amygdala, a section of the brain known to control aggression

and rage. Such "human potential engineering" is already a

partial reality and the necessary technical knowledge

increases every day[154].

While this passage speaks of drugs and electronics, we can safely assume

that the planners of battle would not refrain from using any other promising


Gabriel writes primarily of large-scale battle scenarios, but based on

his information, we can fairly deduce that the mind-controlled soldier will

also play a role in the surgical strike, the covert operation, the infiltration

behind enemy lines by units of the Special Forces. On such missions, United

States personnel have increasingly relied on torture as a means of interro-

gation and intimidation[155], and as such barbarism becomes standard procedure

the American fighting man of the future will need to find within himself

unprecedented reserves of brutality. Will the average recruit, culled from the

nation's suburbs and reared on traditional ideals, possess such reserves?

Vietnam proved that the soldier, despite a barrage of propaganda intended to

cloud his discernment, will sense the difference between fighting for legit-

imate defense interests and fighting to protect political hegemony. To

forestall this realization, or to render it irrelevant, military planners must

withdraw the human combatant and replace him with a new species of warrior.

The soldier of the future will not discern; he will merely do. He will not be

a butcher; he will be the butcher's KNIFE -- a tool among tools, thoughtless

and effective.

And it is my contention that to create this soldier of the future, the

controllers will need a continuing program, one designed to test each new

method and combination of methods for conquering the human mind.

One primary goal of this program must include expanding the human capacity

for stress and violence. Subjects enrolled in such experimental procedures

will experience pain, and will learn to accept the pain. Eventually, they will

learn to inflict it, without remorse or even remembrance. The nation who first

creates this new soldier will possess a decisive advantage on the "conven-

tional" battlefield -- as will the nation which first develops a means of using

mass mind control techniques to disable entire enemy platoons. [And to placate

whole civilian populations, both those of the enemy and those at home. -jpg]

This paramount military necessity is the reason why I will never believe any

unconvincing reassurances that our nation's clandestine scientists have fore-

gone or will forego research into behavior modification. This research will

never be mere history. What's past is present, and today's covert experiment-

ation will become tomorrow's basic training.

A prototype of the future warrior may already be with us. The Navy SEAL

I interviewed spoke in horrifying detail of dismemberment without emotion, of

rape as routine, of killing without affect. And then FORGETTING THAT HE HAD

KILLED. Even years later, he could not recall the stories behind many of the

wounds on his own body. He claims that whenever he would need the services of

the veteran's hospital, doctors would re-hypnotize him shortly after his

admission, while a physician specifically cleared for such work would examine

his medical history, which was highly classified and kept under lock and key.

According to the SEAL's testimony, his memory block cracked little by

little, as a result of events too complex to recount here. Finally, years

after Vietnam, he was able to remember what he did.

Amnesia was a blessing.

IV. Abductions

Press and public now regard abductees as tony curiosities, yet science, for

the most part, still banishes their tales to the domain of the damned, as

Charles Fort defined damnation. So too with claimed victims of mind control.

The Voice of Authority tells us that MKULTRA belongs to history; like Hasdrubal

and Hitler, it threatened once, but no more. Anyone insisting otherwise must

be silenced by glib rationalization and selective inattention.

Yet these two topics -- UFO abductions and mind control -- have more in

common than their mutual ostracization. The data overlap. If we could chart

these phenomena on a Venn diagram, we would see a surprisingly large inter-

section between the two circles of information. It is this overlap I seek to


Note, however, that I can NOT address all the other interesting and

important issues raised by the UFO abduction experience. For exmaple, I have

written, admittedly rather vaguely, of nasal implants reported by abductees --

the sort of detail which might place an account in the "high strangeness"

category, and of course, a detail central to my thesis. But what percentage

of the percipients speak of such implants? A truly scientific analysis would

provide a figure. Unfortunately, I haven't the resources to compile a

sufficiently large abductee sample from which one could draw statistics. Nor

can I make an over-arching qualitative analysis, measuring the value of "high

strangeness" reports against other abductee claims. All I can do is note the

available literature, and leave the reader to wonder, as I do, whether the

compilers of that literature concentrated on exceptional cases or were biased

in favor of the less fantastic abductee accounts. I have supplemented readings

of the abduction literature with my own interviews with percipients -- which,

since abductees tend to know other abductees, can give a surprisingly wide view

of the phenomenon. This view has been broadened still further by my talks and

correspondence with other members of the UFO community.

Of course, we must recognize the difference between testimony and proof. No

one can state definitively that abduction reports have a basis in objective

reality (however misperceived). Ultimately, all we have are stories. Some of

these stories may be of questionable veracity; others may be contaminated by

investigator bias; many are insufficiently detailed. No one research paper can

resolve all abduction controversies, and many necessary battles must be fought

on other fields.

Still, the testimony won't go away -- and we certainly have enough to allow

for comparisons. I maintain that an unprejudiced overview of abduction reports

in the popular press and the less-familiar material on mind control will

demonstrate a striking correlation. Once other abduction researchers have been

educated in the ways of MKULTRA (and this paper is intended as an introductory

text) they may note a similar pattern. If so, we can then begin to write a

revisionist history of the phenomenon.

The abduction enigma contains within it sub-mysteries that slide into the

mind control scenario with surprising ease, even elegance -- mysteries which

fit the E.T. hypothesis as uncomfortably as a size 10 foot fits into a size 8

shoe. As we have seen, the MKULTRA thesis explains the reports of abductee

intracerebral implants (particularly reports involving nosebleeds), unusual

scars, "telepathic" communication (i.e., externally induced intracerebral

voices) concurrent with or following the abduction encounter, allegations that

some abductees hear unusual sound effects (similar to those created by the

hemi-synch and cognate devices), haywire electronic devices in abductee homes,

personality shifts, "training films," manipulation of religious imagery, and

missing time. Needless to say, the thesis of clandestine government experi-

mentation readily accounts for abductee claims of human beings "working" with

the aliens, and for the government harassment that plays so prominent a role in

certain abductee reports.

Let's look at some more correlations.


Earlier, I asked, "Do the aliens also watch black-and-white television?" in

reference to their alleged use of old-fashioned, Terra-style brain implantation

devices. Abduction accounts abound in other examples of alien "retro-

technology." The most striking example can be found in the Betty and Barney

Hill incident, the details of which are too well-known to recount here[156].

As we have already glimpsed during our discussion of the Rex Niles affair,

the Hills' "interrupted journey" abounds in data which, taken together, permits

the construction of an alternative explanation.

At one point during the alleged UFO abduction, the "examiners" inserted a

needle in Betty Hill's navel, telling her that this practice constituted a

test for pregnancy[157]. Some ufologists[158] rashly assume that Betty Hill's

"pregnancy test" is evidence of advanced extraterrestrial technology, since her

1961 account pre-dates the official announcement of amniocentesis, which does

indeed make use of a needle inserted into the navel. But we now have much less

invasive means of testing for pregnancy than amniocentesis. True, amniocentesis

is still sometimes used to gather information about the fetus, but the wielders

of a highly evolved technology would certainly use other methods of determining

the existence of pregnancy in the first place.

Betty Hill's testimony reminds us of certain other abduction accounts,

which contain descriptions of "healings" surprisingly similar to the procedures

associated with still-experimental electromagnetic therapy techniques, such as

those described in Robert O. Becker's THE BODY ELECTRIC. For example, abductee

Deanna Dube described for me an abduction-related "regeneration" of her long-

damaged heart; had she been familiar with Becker's work[159], she might have

been a bit less rapid to ascribe her healing to otherworldly influences.

Medical breakthroughs often undergo years of testing before their official

"discovery." For some of these tests, finding volunteers present a major

obstacle. If we accept the proposition that the Hill incident originated in an

external and objective stimulus, we must then ask ourselves which scenario is

more likely: Did Betty Hill encounter human beings using a technique ten years

ahead of its time? Or did she encounter aliens (reputedly a "billion years

ahead of us") using science from eons before THEIR time?

One must also ask why Betty Hill's aliens seemed to have no grasp of basic

human concepts (such as how we measure time) -- yet they knew enough about us

to speak English fluently and had even mastered our slang. Were these real

aliens, or humans engaging in theatricals (and occasionally muffing their

lines)? For that matter, why did Betty Hill originally recall her abductors as

humanoid, only later describing them as aliens?

The Hill case provided a particularly controversial piece of evidence --

the celebrated "star map" recalled by Betty Hill under hypnosis. In later

years, an Ohio schoolteacher named Marjorie Fish made an ingenious and laudable

attempt to discover a match for this map by constructing an elaborate three-

dimensional model of nearby star systems; whether she succeeded remains a

matter for keen debate[160]. For now, I prefer to avoid taking sides in this

dispute and will confine myself to insisting that pro-ET ufologists answer

(WITHOUT resorting to glib ripostes) a point first raised by Jacques Vallee:

THE MAP MAKES NO SENSE AS A NAVIGATIONAL AID. Vallee notes that, even if we

grant the Fish interpretation, the stars are not drawn to scale -- and at any

rate, alien spaceships would surely be navigated the same way we guide our own

spacecraft: via computers and telemetry[161]. The validity of the Fish

interpretation is irrelevent; the point is that ANY such chart would have NO

value to an interstellar star-farer.

Fish's work raises other controversies: Allegedly, the map points to Zeta

Reticuli as the aliens' home system and pictures Zeta Reticuli as a single

star, a view consistent with scientific opinion of the 1960s. Yet in later

years scientists discovered that Zeta Reticuli is binary[162]. Moreover, how

did our abductee manage to remember so accurately a complex chart glimpsed in

passing? Even allowing for the possibility of increased accuracy of recol-

lection under hypnotic regression, the memory feat here seems remarkable.

Consider the circumstances of the abduction: Kafka on hallucinogens couldn't

have conceived of the nightmare vision confronting Betty Hill that night --

yet for some reason this particular arrangement of stars emerged as her most

intensely-detailed recollection of the experience.

This memory (if not confabulated during regression, a possibility we should

always weigh) is comprehensible only as an example of ARTIFICIALLY-INDUCED

HYPERMNESIA. In other words, Betty Hill was DIRECTED to store that chart

within her subconscious. The celebrated star map ought to be recognized for

what it was: a prop, a seemingly-confirmatory circumstantial detail meant to

convince her -- and perhaps US -- of the reality of her abduction. [cf.

Strieber's citation of the woman with the memory of ancient Celtic "fairy

speak." -jpg]

The question of motive arises. Why -- if my thesis is correct -- were

these two fairly innocuous individuals chosen for this new variation on the old

MKULTRA tricks?

The selection might, of course, have been arbitrary. Or perhaps circum-

stances now irretrievably lost to history rendered the couple a convenient

target. Interestingly, Barney Hill had become acquainted (through church

functions) with the head of Air Force intelligence at Pease Air Force Base;

perhaps this relationship first brought the Hills to the attention of members

of the intelligence community. Arguably, the Hills could have been fingered

for a wide variety of reasons; as a general rule, the clandestine services

prefer to satisfy a number of itches with one scratch.

In fact, the espionage establishment had one particularly compelling reason

to focus on the Hills. Barney Hill (a black man) and his wife held important

positions in several civil rights organizations, including the NAACP[163].

The abduction took place during the 1960s, when the NAACP and allied groups

fell victim to an increasingly paranoid series of attacks from the FBI and

other governmental agencies (under operations COINTELPRO, CHAOS, GARDEN PLOT,

etc.)[164]. At that time, infiltration of civil rights groups proved a

difficult chore; while most left-leaning groups provided easy targets for FBI

stooges, the average undercover operative would have had an exceptionally

difficult time posing as a black activist. (In 1961, the only black people on

the FBI's payroll were the servants in J. Edgar Hoover's home.)

In light of these facts, we should recall Victor Marchetti's anecdote about

the cat that the CIA had "wired for sound." Perhaps an ambitious covert

scientist proposed a similar experiment, in which a human being would play the

role that had once been assigned to the unfortunate feline? As Estabrooks

noted, the ultimate espionage agent would be the spy who doesn't KNOW he is a

spy. Barney Hill, a well-regarded figure with a near-genius-level IQ, was a

safe bet to obtain a leadership role in any group he joined; he would have been

remarkably well-positioned, had any outsiders wished to use his ears to over-

hear prominent black organizers in confidential discussion.

Of course, many intelligence professionals would counter this suggestion

by reminding us that eavesdroppers on the civil rights movement had plenty of

less-flamboyant methods: Bugging, "black bag" jobs, paying for information,

etc. The point is valid. But if the technology to create a "human bug" was

developed circa 1961 -- and there is documentation suggesting that such is

indeed the case[165] -- the intelligence agencies would surely have wanted to

test the possibilities in the field. And considering the expense of such a

test, why not conduct the experiment in such a way as to reap the maximum

benefits? Why NOT choose a Barney Hill?


Budd Hopkins told the follwing story during his lecture at the Los Angeles

"Whole Life Expo."[166] He considers the case "very good...lots of corrobo-

rating witnesses for parts of it." Though not, presumably, for THIS part:

Hopkins' informant, after the by-now familiar UFO abduction, was given a

gun by the aliens. Not a Buck Rogers laser weapon -- this was something

Dirty Harry might have packed.

The abductee was also given someone to shoot. Not a little grey alien --

another human being, tied to a chair. The "visitors" told their armed abductee

that this captive had done "evil on earth, and he's a bad person. You have to

kill him." If the abductee didn't do as asked, he would never leave the ship.

The captive proclaimed his innocence, and pleaded for his life. The

abductee, caught in the middle of all this, became quite upset. (Worth noting:

he seems to have at least CONSIDERED the aliens' request to shoot someone he

had never met.) Ultimately, the abductee turned the gun on the aliens and

said, "Nobody's going to get shot here."

According to Hopkins, "The aliens said 'Fine. Very good.' They took the

gun from him; the man [presumably, the captive] got up, walked away, dis-

appeared, and they went on to the next thing." Obviously, this little drama

had been staged -- a test of some sort.

I submit that this surreal incident is incomprehensible as either an

example of alien incursion or of "Klass-ical" confabulation. The scenario

described here EXACTLY parallels numerous experiments in the hypnotic induction

of anti-social action as revealed both in the standard hypnosis literature and

in declassified ARTICHOKE/MKULTRA documents. For example, compare Hopkins'

account to the following, in which Ludwig Mayer, a prominent German hypnosis

researcher, describes a classic experiment in the hypnotic induction of

criminal action:

I gave a revolver to an elderly and readily suggestible

man whom I had just hypnotized. The revolver had just been

loaded by Mr. H. with a percussion cap. I explained to

[the subject], while pointing to Mr. H., that Mr. H. was a

very wicked man whom he should shoot to kill. With great

determination he took the revolver and fired a shot directly

at Mr. H. Mr. H. fell down pretending to be wounded. I

then explained to my subject that the fellow was not yet

quite dead, and that he should give him another bullet,

which he did without further ado[167].

Of course, if a conservative hypnosis specialist were asked to comment on

the above account, he would quickly point out that hypnotic suggestions which

work in an experimental situation would not easily succeed outside the lab-

oratory; on some level, the subject will probably sense whether or not he's

playing the game for real[168]. Similarly, a conservative abduction researcher

would, in reviewing Hopkins' material, emphasize the problems inherent in using

testimony derived during regression, where the threat of confabulation lurks.

I'll concede both arguments -- for the moment -- only to insist that they are

beside the point. The matter of primary importance, the sticking point which

neither Klass nor Hopkins can comfortably confront, is the convergence of

detail between Mayer's hypnosis experiment and the testing event related by

Hopkins' abductee. WHY ARE THESE TWO STORIES SO SIMILAR? Did the good Dr.

Mayer take pupils from Sirius?[169].

Hopkins says he knows of other instances in which abductees found themselves

in similar crucibles. So do I.

One person I spoke to can remember (SANS hypnosis) being handed a gun inside

a ziplock baggy and receiving instructions that she will have to use this

weapon "on a job." Early in my interviews with her (and with no prompting from

me) she recited an apparent cue drilled into her consciousness by the "enti-

ties" (as she calls them): "When you see the light, do it tonight," followed by

the command, "Execute." (One can only speculate as to how such commands would

be used in the field; we will discuss later the use of photovoltaic hypnotic

induction.) Though her personal feelings toward firearms are decidedly

negative, she vividly describes periods in her "everyday" life when she feels an

uncharacteristic, yet overpowering urge to be near a gun -- a quasi-sexual

desire to pick one up and touch the metal[170].

She is not alone. Another has been so affected by gun fever that he became

a security guard, just to be near the things[171]. The abductees I have spoken

to connect this sudden surge of Ramboism to the UFO experience. But I suggest

that the UFO experience may be merely a cover story for another type of

training entirely.

One of the primary goals of BLUEBIRD, ARTICHOKE, and MKULTRA was to

determine whether mind control could be used to faciliate "executive action"--

i.e., assassination[172].

It isn't difficult to imagine the media's reaction if a public figure were

murdered by someone acting at the behest of the "space brothers." Who would

dare to speak of conspiracy under such circumstances? The hidden controllers

could choose a myth structure that conform's to the abductee's personality,

then pose as higher beings, who would whisper violence into the ear of the

percipient. Using this ruse, the trick that scientists such as Ludwig Mayer

could perform in the lab might now be accomplished in the field. As

Estabrooks' associate Jack Tracktir (professor of hypnotherapy at Baylor

University) explained to John Marks, anti-social acts can be induced with

"no conscience involved" once the proper pretext has been created[173].


Jenny Randles contributes an anecdote from Great Britain which dovetails

nicely with this hypothesis.

In 1965, "Margary" (a pseudonym) lived in Birmingham with her husband, who

one night told her to prepare for a "shock and a test." As Randles describes

what she calls a "rogue case":

They got into his car and drove off, although her memory

of the trip became hazy and confused and she does not know

where they went. Then she was in a room that was dimly lit

and there were people standing around a long table or flat

bed. She was out on it and seemed "drugged" and unable to

resist. The most memorable of the men was tall and thin with

a long nose and white beard. He had thick eyebrows and

supposedly said to Margary, "Remember the eyebrows, honey."

A strange medical examination, using odd equipment, was

performed on her.

Both the husband and the scientists, using (apparently) hypnotic techniques,

flooded her mind with images that, she was told, would be understood only in

the future. According to Randles, "At one point one of the 'examiners' in the

room said to Margary in a tone that made it seem as if he were amused, "THEY

WILL THINK IT'S FLYING SAUCERS." The husband also revealed that he had a

second identity. After the abduction, this husband (am I going too far to

assume his employment with MI6 or some cognate agency?) left, never to be seen

again[174]. Margary did not recall the abduction until 1978.

This affair can only baffle a researcher who insists on fitting all

abduction accounts into the ET hypothesis; once we free ourselves from that

set of assumptions, explanations come easily. I interpret this incident as a

case in which the controllers applied the flying saucer cover story sloppily,

or to an insufficiently receptive subject. If my thesis is correct, the UFO

"hypnotic hoax" technique would still have been fairly new in 1965, particular-

ly outside the United States; perhaps the manipulators hadn't yet got the hang

of it. The odd comment about the scientist's eyebrows may refer to an item of

disguise donned for the occasion. The unscrupulous hypnotist, unsure about his

ability to induce an impenetrable amnesia -- and mindful of the price paid by

his forerunners in mesmeric criminality[175] -- would understandably want to

hedge his bets; by indulging in the British penchant for theatrics, he could

further protect his anonymity.

A similar incident was brought to my attention by researcher Robert Durant.

The relevant excerpt of his letter follows:

Now I want to turn to a case that I have been investigating

for several months. The subject is an abductee. Standard

abduction scenario. Twice regressed under hypnosis, the first

time by a well-known abduction researcher, the second time by

a psychologist with parapsychology connections.

In the course of many hours of listening to the subject, I

discovered that she has had close personal contact over a long

period of time with several individuals who have federal

intelligence connections. She was hypnotized many years ago

as part of a TV program devoted to hypnosis. Her abductions

began shortly after she attended several long sessions at a

laboratory where, ostensibly, she was being tested for ESP

abilities. Two other people who were "tested" at this same

laboratory have also had abductions. All three were told by

the lab to join a local UFO group. During her abductions, the

principal alien spoke to the subject in the English language

in a normal manner, not via telepathy. She recognized the

voice, which was at one time that of her very close friend of

yesteryear who was then and is now employed by the CIA. The

other voice was that of an individual who works in Washington,

has what I will call very strong federal connections as well

as a finger in every ufological pie, and who just happened to

bump into her at the aforementioned laboratory. He also

anticipated, in the course of telephone conversations, her

abductions. When the subject confronted him about this and

the voice, he claimed to be psychic. (!)[176]

The "ESP" connection is suggestive; the MKULTRA documents betray an

astonishing interest on the part of the intelligence agencies in matters


Some researchers would object that examples such as this are rare; most

abductions contain no such overt indications of intelligence involvement.

But have investigators looked for them? As mentioned in the introduction,

a false dichotomy limits much ufological thought; as long as the abduction

argument swings between the ET hypothesis and purely psychological theories,

researchers will not recognize the relevance of certain key items of back-

ground data.


In an interview with me, a northern-California abducteee -- call him "Peter"

-- reported an experience which was conducted NOT by a small grey alien, but by

a human being. The percipient called this man a "doctor." He gave a descrip-

tion of this individual, and even provided a drawing.

Some time after I gathered this information, a southern-California abductee

told me her story -- which included a description of this very same "doctor."

The physical details were so strikingly similar as to erase coincidence. This

woman is a leading member of a Los Angeles-based UFO group; three other women

in this group report abduction encounters with the same individual[177].

Perhaps those three women were fantasists, attaching themselves to another's

narrative. But my northern informant never met these people. Why did he

describe the same "doctor"?

One of the abductees I have dealt with insisted, under hypnosis, that her

abduction experience brought her to a certain house in the Los Angeles area.

She was able to provide directions to the house, even though she had no

conscious memory of ever being there. I later learned that this house is

indeed occupied by a scientist who formerly (and perhaps currently) conducted

clandestine research on mind control technology.

This same abductee described a clandestine brain operation of some sort she

underwent in childhood. The neurosurgeon was a human being, not an alien.

She even recalled the name. (Note: This is not the same individual referred to

above.) When I heard the name, it meant nothing to me -- but later I learned

that there really was a scientist of that name who specialzed in electrode

implant research.

Licia Davidson is a thoughtful and articulate abductee, whose fascinating

story closely parallels many found in the abductee literature -- except for one

unusual detail. In an interview with me, described an unsettling recollection

of a human being, dressed normally, holding a black box with a protruding

antenna. This odd snippet of memory did NOT coincide with the general thrust

of her abduction narrative. Could this remembrance represent an all-too-brief

segment of accurately-perceived reality interrupting her hypnotically-induced

"screen memory"? Peter clearly recalls seeing a similar box during his


Interestingly, Licia resides in the Los Angeles suburb of Tujunga Canyon, a

prominent spot on the abduction map; Many of the abductees I have spoken to

first had unusual experiences while living in this area. Near Tujunga Canyon,

in Mt. Pacifico, is a hidden former Nike missile base; more than one abductee

has described odd, seemingly inexplicable military activity around this

location[178]. The reader will recall the connection of Nike missile bases to

the disturbing story of Dr. L. Jolyon West, a veteran of MKULTRA.


Some abductees I have spoken to have been directed to join certain

religious/philosophical sects. These cults often bear close examination.

The leaders of these groups tend to be "ex"-CIA operatives, or Special

Forces veterans. They are often linked through personal relations, even

though they espouse widely varying traditions. I have heard unsettling

reports that the leaders of some of these groups have used hypnosis, drugs,

or "mind machines" on their charges. Members of these cults have reported

periods of missing time during ceremonies or "study periods."

I strongly urge abduction researchers to examine closely any small "occult"

groups an abductee might join. For example, one familiar leader of the UFO

fringe -- a man well-known for his espousal of the doctrine of "love and light"

-- is Virgil Armstrong, a close personal friend of General John Singlaub, the

notorious Iran-Contra player, who recently headed the neo-fascist World Anti-

Communist League. Armstrong, who also happens to be an ex-Green Beret and

former CIA operative, figured into my inquiry in an interesting fashion: An

abductee of my acquaintance was told -- by her "entities," naturally -- to seek

out this UFO spokesman and join his "sky-watch" activities, which, my source

alleges, included a mass channelling session intended to send debilitating

"negative" vibrations to Constantine Chernenko, then the leader of the Soviet

Union. Of course, intracerebral voices may have a purely psychological origin,

so Armstrong can hardly be held to task for the abductee's original "direct-

ive."[179] Still, his past associations with military intelligence inevitably

bring disturbing possibilities to mind.

Even more ominous than possible ties between UFO cults and the intelligence

community are the cults' links with the shadowy I AM group, founded by Guy

Ballard in the 1930s[180]. According to researcher David Stupple, "If you look

at the contactee groups today, you'll see that most of the stable, larger ones

are actually neo-I AM groups, with some sort of tie to Ballard's organization."

[181] This cult, therefore, bears investigation.

Guy Ballard's "Mighty I AM Religious Activity," grew, in large part, out of

William Dudley Pelly's Silver Shirts, an American NAZI organization[182].

Although Ballard himself never openly proclaimed NAZI affiliation, his movement

was tinged with an extremely right-wing political philosophy, and in secret

meetings he "decreed" the death of President Franklin Roosevelt[183]. The I AM

philosophy derived from Theosophy, and in this author's estimation bears a

more-than-cursory resemblance to the Theosophically-based teachings that

informed the proto-NAZI German occult lodges[184].

After the war, Pelley (who had been imprisoned for sedition during the

hostilities) headed an occult-oriented organization call Soulcraft, based in

Noblesville, Indiana. Another Soulcraft employee was the controversial

contactee George Hunt Williamson (real name: Michel d'Obrenovic), who co-

authored UFOs CONFIDENTIAL with John McCoy, a proponent of the theory that a

Jewish banking conspiracy was preventing disclosure of the solution to the UFO

mystery[185]. Later, Williamson founded the I AM-oriented Brotherhood of the

Seven Rays in Peru[186]. Another famed contactee, George Van Tassel, was

associated with Pelley and with the notoriously anti-Semitic Reverend Wesley

Swift (founder of the group which metamorphosed into the Aryan nations).[187]

The most visible offspring of I AM is Elizabeth Clare Prophet's Church

Universal and Triumphant, a group best-known for its massive arms caches in

underground bunkers. CUT was recently exposed in COVERT ACTION INFORMATION

BULLETIN as a conduit of CIA funds[188], and according to researcher John

Judge, has ties to organizations allied to the World Anti-Communist League[189]

Prophet is becoming involved in abduction research and has sponsored present-

ations by Budd Hopkins and other prominent investigators. In his book THE


Virgil Armstrong directs troubled abductees toward Prophet's group. (Perhaps

not insignificantly, he also suggests that abductees plagued by implants

alleviate their problem by turning to "the I AM force" within.[191])

Another UFO channeller, Frederick Von Mierers, has promulgated both a cult

with a strong I AM orientation[192] and an apparent con-game involving over-

appraised gemstones. Mierers is an anti-Semite who contends that the Holocaust

never happened and that the Jews control the world's wealth.

UFORUM is a flying saucer organization popular with Los Angeles-area

abductees; its founder is Penny Harper, a member of a radical Scientology

breakaway group which connects the teachings of L. Ron Hubbard with

pronouncements against "The Illuminati" (a mythical secret society) and other

BETES NOIR familiar from right-wing conspiracy literature. Harper directs

members of her group to read THE SPOTLIGHT, an extremist tabloid (published by

Willis Carto's Liberty Lobby) which denies the reality of the Holocaust and

posits a "Zionist" scheme to control the world[193].

More than one unwary abductee has fallen in with groups such as those listed

above. It isn't difficult to imagine how some of these questionable groups

might mold an abductee's recollection of his experience -- and perhaps help

direct his future actions.

Some modern abductees, with otherwise-strong claims, claim encounters with

blond, "Nordic" aliens reminiscent of the early contactee era. Surely, the

"Nordic" appearance of these aliens sprang from the dubious spiritual tradition

of Van Tassell, Ballard, Pelley, McCoy, etc. Why, then, are some modern

abductees seeing these very same other-worldly UEBERMENSCHEN?

One abductee of my acquaintance claims to have had beneficial experiences

with these "blond" aliens -- who, he believes, came originally from the

Pleiades. Interestingly, in the late 1960s, the psychopathically anti-Semitic

Rev. Wesley Swift predicted this odd twist in the abduction tale. In a

broadcast "sermon," he spoke at length about UFOs, claiming that there were

"good" aliens and "bad" aliens. The good ones, he insisted, were tall, blond

Aryans -- WHO HAILED FROM THE PLEIADES. He made this pronouncement long before

the current trends in abduction lore.

Could some of the abductions be conducted by an extreme right-wing element

within the national security establishment? Disagreeable as the possibility

seems, we should note that the "lunatic right" is represented in all other

walks of life; certainly hard-rightists have taken positions within the

military-intelligence complex as well.


John Keel's ground-breaking OPERATION TROJAN HORSE, written in an era when

abductees still came under the category of "contactees," includes the following

intriguing data, gleaned from Keel'a extensive field work:

Contactees often find themselves suddenly miles from home

without knowing how they got there. They either have induced

amnesia, wiping out all memory of the trip, or they were taken

over by some means and made the trip in a blacked-out state.

Should they encounter a friend on the way, the friend would

probably note that their eyes seemed glassy and their behavior

seemed peculiar. But if the friend spoke to them, he might

receive a curt reply.

In the language of the contactees this process is called

being used...I have known silent contactees to disappear from

their homes for long periods, and when they returned, they

had little or no recollection of where they had been. One

girl sent me a postcard from the Bahama Islands -- which

surprised me because I knew she was very poor. When she

returned, she told me that she had only one memory of the

trip. She said she remembered getting off a jet at an air-

port -- she souldn't recall getting on the jet or making the

trip -- and there "Indians" met her and took her baggage...

The next thing she knew she was back home again[194].

Puzzling indeed -- unless one has read THE CONTROL OF CANDY JONES, which

speaks of Candy's "blacked out" periods, during which she travelled to Taiwan

as a CIA courier, adopting her second personality. The mind control explana-

tion perfectly solves all the mysteries in the above excerpt -- save, perhaps,

the odd remark about "Indians."

Hickson and Mendez' UFO CONTACT AT PASCAGOULA contains the interesting

information that Charles Hickson awakes at night feeling that he is on the

verge of re-awakening some terribly important memory connected with his

encounter -- yet ostensibly he can account for every moment of his adventure.

Hickson also received a letter from an apparent abductee who claims that

the grey aliens are actually automatons of some sort -- perhaps an unconscious

recognition of the unreality of the hypnotically-induced "cover story."[195]

In this light, the film version of COMMUNION -- whose screenplay was written

by Whitley Strieber -- takes on a new interest: The abduction sequences contain

inexplicable images indicating that the "greys" are really props, or masks.

COMMUNION and TRANSFORMATION contain passages detailing what seems to be a

hazily-recalled Candy-Jones-style espionage adventure, in which Strieber was

shanghaied by a "coach" and a "nurse" (both human beings) who apparently

drugged him[196]. Recall the example of Keel's informants. Moreover,

TRANSFORMATION contains lengthy descriptions of alien beings working in

apparent collusion with human beings.

Abductee Christa Tilton also recalls both human beings and aliens playing

a part in her experience. Ever since her abduction, she claims, she has been

"shadowed" by a mysterious federal agent she calls John Wallis[197]. Christa's

husband, Tom Adams, has confirmed Wallis' existence[198].

In his REPORT ON COMMUNION, Ed Conroy -- who seems to have become a

participant in, and not merely an observer of, the phenomenon -- describes

harassment by helicopters, which as we have already noted, seems to be quite

a common occurrence in abductee situations[199]. Researchers blithely assume

that these incidents represent governmental attempts to spy on UFO percipients.

But this assertion is ridiculous. Helicopters are extremely expensive to

operate, and the engines of espionage have perfected numerous alternative

methods to gather information. After all, we now have a fairly extensive

bibliography of FBI, CIA, and military efforts to spy on numerous movements

favoring domestic social change. Why have no veterans of CHAOS or COINTELPRO

(either victim or victimizer) spoken of helicopters? Obviously the choppers

serve some other purpose beyond mere surveillance. One possibility might be

the propagation of electromagnetic waves which might affect the perceptions/

behaviors of an implanted individual. (Indeed, I have heard rumors of heli-

copters being used in electronic "crowd control" operations in Vietnam and

elsewhere; alas, the information is far from hard.)

Contactee Eldon Kerfoot has written of his suspicions that human mani-

pulators, not aliens, may be the ultimate puppeteers engineering his

experiences. He describes a sudden compulsion to kill a fellow veteran of

the Korean conflict -- a man Kerfoot had no logical reason to distrust or

dislike, yet whom he "sensed" to have been a traitor to his country. For-

tunately, the assassination never materialized[200]. But the situation exactly

parallels incidents described in released ARTICHOKE documents concerning the

remote hypnotic induction of anti-social behavior.

One last speculation:

Renato Vesco's INTERCEPT BUT DON'T SHOOT[201] outlines a fascinating

scenario for the "secret weapon" hypothesis of UFOs. Vesco points out that

if these devices are one day to be used in a superpower conflict , the

attacking power would be well-served by the myth of the UFO as an extra-

terrestrial craft, for the besieged nation would not know the true nature of

its opponent. Perhaps, then, one purpose of the UFO abductions is to engender

and maintain the legend of the little grey aliens. For the hidden manipula-

tors, the abductions could be, in and of themselves, a propaganda coup.


I do not insist dogmatically on the scenario that I have outlined. I do not

wish to dissuade abduction researchers from exploring other avenues -- indeed,

I strongly encourage such work to continue. Nor can I easily account for some

aspects of the abduction narratives -- for example, any suggestions I could

offer concerning the reports of genetic experimentation would be extremely


But I DO insist on a fair hearing of this hypothesis. Criticism is

encouraged; that which does not destroy my thesis will make it stronger. I ask

only that my critics refrain from intellectual laziness; mere differences in

world-view do not constitute a valid attack. God is found in the details.

I recognize the dangers inherent in making this thesis public. New and

distressing abductee confabulations may result. I would prefer that the

audience for this paper be restricted to abduction RESEARCHERS, not victims,

who might be unduly influenced. However, in a society that prides itself on

ostensibly free press, such restrictions are unthinkable. Therefore, I can

only beg any abduction victims who might read this paper to attempt a super-

human objectivity. The thesis I have outlined is promising, and (should

trepanation ever provide us with an example of an actual abductee implant)

susceptible of proof. But mine is not the only hypothesis. The abductee's

unrewarding task is to report what he or she has experienced as truthfully as

possible, untainted by outside speculation.

Whether or not future investigation proves UFO abductions to be a product

of mind control experimentation, I feel that this paper has, at least,

provided evidence of a serious danger facing those who hold fast to the ideals

of individual freedom. We cannot long ignore this menace.

A spectre haunts the democratic nations -- the spectre of TECHNOFASCISM.

All the powers of the espionage empire and the scientific establishment have

entered into an unholy alliance to evoke this spectre: Psychiatrist and spy,

Dulles and Delgado, microwave specialists and clandestine operators.

A mind is a terrible thing to waste -- and a worse thing to commandeer.


1. Budd Hopkins, MISSING TIME (New York: Richard Marek Publishers, 1981)

and INTRUDERS (New York: Random House, 1987).

2. Whitley Strieber, COMMUNION (New York: Beech Tree Books, 1987).

3. Cannon, "Psychiatric Abuse of UFO Witness," UFO magazine, vol. 3,

no. 5 (December, 1988)

4. Philip Klass, UFO ABDUCTIONS: A DANGEROUS GAME (Buffalo: Prometheus

Books, 1988). Klass makes some sharp observations, which are undercut by his

refusal to interview abductees directly. The work has no footnotes and

depends heavily on the work of Dr. Martin Orne -- of whom more anon.

5. See bibliography.

6. New York: Bantam Books, 1979.


BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, joint hearing before the Select Committee on Health and

Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, Unites States Senate

(Washington: Government Printing Office, 1977).

8. Robert Eringer, "Secret Agent Man," ROLLING STONE, 1985.

9. John Marks interview with Victor Marchetti (Marks files, available at

the National Security Archives, Washington, D.C.).

10. In an interview with John Marks, hypnosis expert Milton Kline, a

veteran of clandestine experimentation in this field, averred that his work

for the government continued. Since the interview took place in 1977, years

after the CIA allegedly halted mind control research, we must conclude either

that the CIA lied, or that another agency continued the work. In another

interview with Marks, former Air Force-CIA liaison L. Fletcher Prouty con-

firmed that the Department of Defense ran studies either in conjunction with

or parallel to those operated by the CIA. (Marks files.)

11. Estabrooks, HYPNOSIS (New York: E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1957

[revised edition]), 13-14.

12. A copy of this letter can be found in the Marks files.

13. Estabrooks attracted an eclectic group of friends, including J.

Edgar Hoover and Alan Watts.

14. Interview with daughter Doreen Estabrooks, Marks files, Washington,


15. Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain, ACID DREAMS (New York: Grove Press,


16. Marks, ibid. 4-6.

17. Edward Hunter, BRAINWASHING IN RED CHINA (New York: Vanguard Press,

1951.). Hunter invented the term "brainwashing" in a September 24, 1950 Miami

NEWS article.

18. "Japan's Germ Warfare Experiments," THE GLOBE AND MAIL (Toronto),

May 19, 1982.

19. Walter Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL (New York: Dell, 1978), 191-2,

quoting Warren Commission documents. We cannot fairly derive from this state-

ment a sanguine attitude about PRESENT Soviet capabilities; in this field,

even outdated technology suffices for mischief.


entymology has it that the "MK" of MKULTRA stands for "Mind Kontrol." Accord-

ing to Marks, TSS prefixed the cryptonyms of all its projects with these

initials. Note, though, that MKULTRA was preceded by a still-mysterious TSS

program called QKHILLTOP.


MKULTRA subprojects were continued, under TSS supervision, as MKSEARCH. This

project ended in 1972. CIA apologists often proclaim that "brainwashing"

research ceased in either 1962 or 1972; these blandishments refer to the TSS

projects, not to the ORD work, which remains TERRA INCOGNITA for independent

researchers. Marks discovered that the ORD research was so voluminous that

retrieving documents via FOIA would have proven unthinkably expensive.

22. For a description of the research into parapsychology, see Ronald

M. McRae's MIND WARS (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984). The best book

available on a subject which awaits a truly authoritative text.

23. Abduction researcher and hypnotherapist Miranda Park, of Lancaster,

California, reports that she has viewed such anomalies in abductee MRI scans.

See also Whitley Strieber, TRANSFORMATION (New York: Beech Tree Books, 1988)

246-247. At this writing, both Strieber and Hopkins report initially promising

results in their efforts to document the presence of these "extras" in


24. Allegedly, the experiment took place in 1964. However, in WERE WE

CONTROLLED? (New Hyde Park, NY: University Books, 1967), the pseudonymous

"Lincoln Lawrence" makes an interesting argument (on page 36) that the

demonstration took place some years earlier.

25. New York: Harper and Row, 1969. Much of Delgado's work was funded

by the Office of Naval Intelligence, a common conduit for CIA funds during the

1950s and '60s. (Gordon Thomas' JOURNEY INTO MADNESS (New York: Bantam, 1989)

misleadingly implies that CIA interest in Delgado's work began in 1972.)

26. J.M.R. Delgado. "Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording

in Completely Free Patients," PSYCHOTECHNOLOGY (Robert L. Schwitzgebel and

Ralph K. Schwitzgebel, editors; New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1973):


27. David Krech, "Controlling the Mind Controllers," THINK 32 (July-

August), 1966.


29. Delgado, "Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording in Completely

free patients," 195.

30. Note, for example, Charles Hickson's account of the Pascagoula

Incident. Charles Hickson and William Mendez, UFO CONTACT AT PASCOGOULA

(Tuscon: Wendelle C. Stevens, 1983).

31. John Ranleigh, THE AGENCY (New York: Simon and Shuster, 1986): 208.

Marchetti casts this story in the form of an amusing anecdote: After much time

and expense, a cat was suitably trained and prepared -- only, on its first

assignment, to be run over by a taxi. Marchetti neglects to point out that

nothing stopped the Agency from getting another cat. Or from using a human


32. Of course, this suggestion raises the knotty question of whether the

abductees suffer from a form of schizophrenia, which may also be characterized

by "voices." I refer the reader to the work of Hopkins, Strieber, Thomas

Bullard, and others who have described the difficulties of ascribing all

abductions to psychotic states.

33. Alan W. Scheflin and Edward M. Opton, Jr., THE MIND MANIPULATORS

(London: Paddington Press, 1978), 347.

34. Thomas, JOURNAY INTO MADNESS, 276.

35. James Olds, "Hypothalamic Substrates of Reward," PHYSIOLOGICAL

REVIEWS, 1962, 42:554; "Emotional Centers in the Brain," SCIENCE JOURNAL,

1967, 3 (5).

36. Vernon Mark and Frank Ervin, VIOLENCE AND THE BRAIN (New York:

Harper and Row, 1970), chapter 12, excerpted in INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND THE

FEDERAL ROLE IN BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, prepared by the Staff of the Subcom-

mittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee of the Judiciary, United

States Senate (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1974).

37. John Lilly, THE SCIENTIST (Berkeley, Ronin Publishing, 1988 [revised

edition]), 90. Monkeys allowed to stimulate themselves continually via ESB

brought themselves to orgasm once every three minutes, sixteen hours a day.

Scientific gatherings throughout the world saw motion pictures of these

experiments, which surely made spectacular cinema.

38. Scheflin and Opton, THE MIND MANIPULATORS, 336-337. Heath even

monitored his patient's brain responses during the subject's first heterosexual

encounter. Such is the nature of the brave new world before us.

39. Robert L. Schwitzgebel and Richard M. Bird, "Sociotechnical Design

Factors in Remote Instrumentation with Humans in Natural Environments,"



AND INSTRUMENTATION article referenced above, Schwitzgebel details how the

radio signals may be fed into a telephone via a modem and thus analyzed by a

computer anywhere in the world.

41. Scheflin and Opton, THE MIND MANIPULATORS, 347-349.

42. Louis Tackwood and the Citizen's Research and Investigation Commit-

tee, THE GLASS HOUSE TAPES (New York: Avon, 1973), 226.

43. Perry London, BEHAVIOR CONTROL (New York: Harper and Row, 1969), 145

44. Scheflin and Opton, THE MIND MANIPULATORS, 351-353; Tackwood, THE


45. "Beepers in kids' heads could stop abductors," Las Vegas SUN, Oct.

27, 1987.

46. Lilly, THE SCIENTIST, 91.


48. Interestingly, Lilly has come out of the closet as a sort of proto-

Strieber; THE SCIENTIST recounts his close interaction with alien (though not

necessarily extraterrestrial) forces which he labels "solid state entities."

49. The story of Deep Trance, an MKULTRA "insider" who provided

invaluable information, is somewhat involved. I do not know who Trance is/was

and Marks may not know either. He contacted Trance via the writer of an

article published shortly before research on THE SEARCH FOR "THE MANCHURIAN

CANDIDATE" began, addressing his informant "Dear Source whose anonymity I

respect." I respect it too -- hence my reticence to name the aforementioned

article, which may mark a trail to Trance. The fact that I have not followed

this trail would not prevent others from doing so. [And if Trance were a

CIA disinformation source a la William Cooper, this is precisely the behavior

they would count on. -jpg]

50. London, BEHAVIOR CONTROL, 139.

51. See generally, UFO magazine, Vol. 4, No. 2; especially the

interesting contribution by Whitley Strieber.

52. Lawrence, WERE WE CONTROLLED?, 36-37; Anita Gregory, "Introduction


FACT OR FICTION (editor: John White) (Nottinghamshire: Aquarian, 1988) 34-57.

53. Lawrence, WERE WE CONTROLLED?, 38.

54. Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 261-264.

55. Ibid. 263.

56. Lawrence, WERE WE CONTROLLED?, 52.


58. Note especially the Supreme Court's decision in CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE

AGENCY ET Al. V. SIMS, ET AL. (No. 83-1075; decided April 16, 1986). The

egregious and dangerous majority opinion in this case held that disclosure of

the names of scientists and institutions involved in MKULTRA posed an

"unacceptable risk of revealing 'intelligence sources.' The decisions of the

[CIA] Director, who must of course be familiar with 'the whole picture,' as

judges are not, are worthy of great is conceivable that the

mere explanation of why information must be withheld can convey valuable

information to a foreign intelligence agency." How do we square this continu-

ing need for secrecy with the CIA's protestations that MKULTRA achieved little

success, that the studies were conducted within the Nueremberg statues govern-

ing medical experiments, and that the research was made available in the open


59. Letter, P.A. Lindstrom to Robert Naeslund, July 27, 1983; copy

available from Martti Koski, Kiilinpellontie 2, 21290 Rusko, Finland. Lind-

strom writes that he fully agrees with Lincoln Lawrence, author of WERE WE


60. Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 265. I have attempted without

success to contact Dr. Lindstrom.

61. Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 233-249. This interview was

repinted without attribution in a bizarre compendium of UFO rumors called

THE MATRIX, compiled by "Valdamar Valerian" (actually John Grace, allegedly

a captain working for Air Force intelligence).

62. Robert Anton Wilson, "Adventures with Head Hardware," MAGICAL BLEND,

23 [of course], July 1989.

63. Michael Hutchison, MEGA BRAIN (New York: Ballantine, 1986); Gerald

Oster, "Auditory Beats in the Brain," SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, September, 1973.

64. Marilyn Ferguson, THE BRAIN REVOLUTION (New York: Taplinger, 1973),


65. Ibid., 91-92. The presence of delta in a waking subject can

indicate pathology.

66. Bio-Pacer promotional and price sheet, available from Lindemann

Laboratories, 3463 State Street, #264, Santa Barbara, CA 93105.

67. Hutchison, MEGA BRAIN, 117-118. Compare Light's observations about

"the grant game" to Sid Gottlieb's protestations that nearly all "mind con-

trol" research was openly published.

68. Thomas Martinez and John Gunther, THE BROTHERHOOD OF MURDER (New

York: McGraw-Hill, 1988), 230.

69. Interview, Sandy Monroe of the Los Angeles office of the Christic


70. See generally Paul Brodeur, THE ZAPPING OF AMERICA (Toronto, George

J. MacLeod, 1977).

71. Until recently, the American Embassy was on a street named after the


72. It was finally determined that the microwaves were used to receive

transmissions from bugs planted within the embassy. DARPA director George H.

Heimeier went on record stating that PANDORA was never designed to study

"microwaves as a surveillance tool." See Anne Keeler, "Remote Mind Control

Technology," FULL DISCLOSURE #15. I would note that the Soviet embassy was

"bugged and waved" in Canada during the 1950s, and according to the Los

Angeles TIMES (June 5, 1989), the Soviet embassy in Britain had been similarly




Intelligence Agency, March 1976.) Brodeur notes that much of the work ascribed

to the Soviets in this report was actually first accomplished by scientists in

the United States. Keeler argues that this report constitutes an example of

"mirror imaging" -- i.e., parading domestic advances as a foreign threat, the

better to pry funding from a suitably-fearful Congress.

74. Keeler, "Remote Mind Control Technology."

75. R.J. MacGregor, "A Brief Survey of Literature Relating to Influence

of Low Intensity Microwaves on Nervous Function" (Santa Monica: RAND Corpor-

ation, 1970).

76. Keeler, "Remote Mind Control Technology."

77. Larry Collins, "Mind Control," PLAYBOY, January 1990.

78. Allan H. Frey, "Behavioral Effects of Electromagnetic Energy,"


WAVES, DeWitt G. Hazzard, editor (U.S. Department of Health, Education and

Welfare, 1977).


(Montreal: Lafferty, Hardwood & Partners, Ltd., 1978).

80. Keeler, "Remote Mind Control Technology."

81. L. George Lawrence, "Electronics and Brain Control," POPULAR


82. Susan Schiefelbein, "The Invisible Threat," SATURDAY REVIEW,

September 15, 1979.

83. E. Preston, "Studies on the Nervous System, Cardiovascular Function


RADIATION, edited by H.M. Assenheim (Ottawa, Canada: National Research Council

of Canada, 1979), 138-141.

84. Robert O. Becker, THE BODY ELECTRIC (New York: William Morrow, 1985)


85. Ibid.

86. Ibid., 321.

87. See Bowart's OPERATION MIND CONTROL, page 218, for an interesting

example of this "rationalization" process at work in the case of Sirhan

Sirhan, who was convicted for the assassination of Robert F. Kennedy. In

prison, Sirhan was hypnotized by Dr. Bernard Diamond, who instructed Sirhan

to climb the bars of his cage like a monkey. He did so. After the trance

was removed, Sirhan was shown tapes of his actions; he insisted that he "acted

like a monkey" of his own free will -- he claimed he wanted the exercise.

88. Keeler suggests that the proposal was revealed only because

Schapitz' sensationalistic implications may have worked to his discredit --

and therefore hide -- the REAL research. Personally, I don't accept this

argument, but I respect Keeler's instincts enough to repeat her caveat here.

89. Margaret Cheney's TESLA: A MAN OUT OF TIME (New York: Dell, 1981),

the most reliable book in the sea of wild speculation surrounding this

extraordinary scientist, confirms Tesla's early work with the psychological

effects of electromagnetic radiation. See especially pages 101-104; note also

the afterword, in which we learn that certain government agencies have kept

important research by Tesla hidden from the general public.

90. Noted in Lawrence, WERE WE CONTROLLED?, 29.

91. Particularly one Thomas Bearden of Huntsville, Alabama; I have in my

possession a document written by Bearden associate Andrew Michrowski which

identifies Bearden as an intelligence agent for an undisclosed agency.

92. Kathleen McAuliffe, "The Mind Fields," OMNI magazine, February 1985.

93. May 5, 1985.

94. I refer to an individual who later wrote a very clear-headed and

thoughtful letter to Dr. Paul Lowinger, who has graciously made his files

available to me. For now, I feel compelled to withhold this person's name.

95. Cameron became president of the American Psychiatric Association,

the Canadian Psychiatric Association, and the World Association of Psychia-

trists, He previously sat on the Nueremberg panel, helping to draw up the

statutes governing ethical medical behavior!

96. In particular, Opton and Scheflin's overview, though excellent in

scope and detail, continually seeks reassurring interpretations of evidence

which points toward more distressing conclusions.

97. Martin T. Orne, "Can a hypnotized subject be compelled to carry out

otherwise unacceptable behavior?" INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERI-

MENTAL HYPNOSIS, 1972, Vol. 20, 101-117.

98. Marks mentions, in a letter to Orne, the latter's claim to have been

an unwitting participant in subproject 84. Yet the papers released concerning

subproject 84 clearly establish the Agency's willingness to put Orne in the

know; Orne later admitted to Marks that he was made aware of his CIA sponsor-


interview with Marks, Orne discounted the story of Candy Jones (which we shall

recount later) by insisting that if such an experiment had occurred "someone

in some agency would have come to me." Why would they come to him about a

super-secret project, unless Orne had a high security clearance and worked

extensively with intelligence agencies? Note also that Orne conducted exten-

sive studies for the Office of Naval Research from June 1, 1968 to May 31,

1971. He has also been funded by DARPA. Moreover, I consider noteworthy the

fact that Orne somehow became president of the Society for Clinical and

Experimental Hypnosis despite the fact that the organization had decided not

to have a president. (This fact was related to Marks by a prominent hypnosis

specialist in an off-the-record interview that I probably wasn't supposed to


99. The story has been told many times. See Turner and Christian's THE


CRIMINAL ACTS AND HYPNOSIS (Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1958).

100. John G. Watkins, "Antisocial behavior under hypnosis: Possible or


1972, Vol. 20, 95-100.

101. Milton H. Erickson, "An experimental investigation of the possible

anti-social use of hypnosis," PSYCHIATRY, 1939, vol. 2. Erickson argues that

if a hypnotist has convinced his subject to misperceive reality, then result-

ing actions cannot be considered "anti-social," for the actions would be

acceptable within the subject's internal reality construct. This argument

strikes me as semantic quibbling. [not me -jpg]

102. See generally Flo Conway and Jim Seigelman, SNAPPING (New York:

Lippincott, 1978).

103. Lee and Schlain, ACID DREAMS, 8-9.

104. John Marks interview with Victor Marchetti, December 19, 1977

(Marks files).

105. Martin T. Orne, "On the Mechanisms of Posthypnotic Amnesia," THE


121-134. Orne's work with post-hypnotic amnesia was funded by NIMH, the Air

Force Office of Scientific Research, and the Office of Naval Research. I

should like to hear what innocent explanation, if any, the Air Force has to

offer to explain their interest in post-hypnotic amnesia. ["We must not allow

a post-hypnotic-amnesia gap!" of course. -jpg]

106. Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 242-243.

107. Obviously Allan Dulles. This may have been a hypnotically-induced

delusion; on the other hand, Dulles' legendary sexual rapacity makes this claim

rather less unlikely than one might first assume.

108. Always the best indicator of whether or not hypnosis is genuine;

I can't understand why Orne didn't use this test in the Blanchi case.

109. Herbert Spiegel, "Hypnosis and evidence: Help or hindrance," ANN.

N.Y. ACAD. SCI.; 1980, 347, 73-85.

110. See, for example, Kroger, HYPNOSIS AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION, 21-22

111. See especially Klass, UFO ABDUCTIONS: A DANGEROUS GAME, 60-61.

Orne, interviewed here, makes reference to the work summarized in his article

"The use and misuse of hypnosis in court" (INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL

HYPNOSIS, 1979, vol. 27, 311-341.)

112. Klass argues that ufologists, in conducting hypnotic regression

sessions, inadvertently cue their subjects. A close reading of his text

reveals that he never proves or claims that such "cues" have taken place in

any individual instance; he simply believes that cueing MIGHT have occurred.

Had Klass been more willing to deal with abductees directly, he might have

found evidence of cause and effect; as it stands, his argument really amounts

to no more than a suggestion. For all that, I find his ideas regarding the

running of "clean" hypnotic regression sessions potentially valuable.


114. Donald Bain, THE CONTROL OF CANDY JONES (Chicago, Playboy Press,


115. The use of hypnotized couriers in warfare goes back to the 19th


116. Estabrooks, HYPNOTISM, 193-214.

117. John Marks interview with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks

files). In another interview, Professor Clare Young (a colleague of Esta-

brooks' at Colgate University) confirmed that Estabrooks' hypnosis work for

the government has never been published.

118. Or could her marriage have been part of the program? "Long John,"

as he was popularly known, was famous in UFO circles, and had provided a forum

for such early-day contactees as Howard Menger. He also knew Jackie Gleason,

a prominent (if unlikely) name in the "crashed disc" rumor vaults. Could

Candy have been assigned to discover what Nebel knew?

119. Marks files. John Marks did excellent work on the Candy Jones story;

he erred -- almost unforgivably -- on the side of conservatism when he refused

to include information about this incident in his book. I know the name of

the institute involved; however, since Candy saw fit to keep this aspect of

her story secret (probably for sound legal reasons), I shall follow her lead.

120. Scheflin and Opton, THE MIND MANIPULATORS, 446-447.

121. Interviews, Marks files. One of Marks' informants offered the

interesting speculation that Candy's torture sessions were not conducted in

the field, but in the lab -- her entire mission might have been a hypno-

programmed fantasy.

122. The information about Candy's CIA files stems from a telephone

interview with Candy Jones. A problem looms here: CIA cover stories unravel

like the skin of an onion; once you remove the outer layer, the next lie is

revealed. [For this reason, I don't think this paper "reveals" the whole

truth; that, I suspect, is far worse. -jpg] In the case of Candy Jones, the

substrata of buncombe involves allegations that she WILLINGLY complied with

the CIA, and used Jensen's hypnosis experiments as a rationalization for her

compliance. Such is the explanation offered by certain of Marks' informants;

alas, Opton and Scheflin seem to have bought this line. Anyone familiar with

the vile acts of self-degradation to which Candy's programmers subjected her

will laugh this story out of court. No one, short of a severely psychotic

masochist, would willingly undergo what she went through.

123. Marks files.

124. William Kroger, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS (Philadelphia:

Lippincott, 1963), 299.

125. Recently, ufologist Jim Moseley, an acquaintance of Candy's, has

claimed that an unidentified source on Nebel's "inner circle" once, off-the-

record, pronounced Candy's story "a crock." This assertion deserves careful

and respectful consideration. Still, Moseley won't identify his source, and

we have no way of telling if this insider spoke from instinct or certain

knowledge, or indeed, what he really meant. Did he feel Candy was fantasizing

or fibbing? If the former, why did her hallucinations match details of

MKULTRA released only after publication of her book? If the latter, how are

we to explain the many hypnotic regression tapes, at least some of which were

made available to outside investigators? (Fairly elaborate, for a hoax.) In

any case, how could Candy have known the fact (confirmed by Marks' associates)

that Kroger taught "Jensen" at a certain West-coast institute? Why, if the

story was "a crock," would Candy risk libel suits by naming -- to associates

and investigators, if not to the general public -- real-life hypnotherapists?

All in all, I would suggest that Moseley's "insider" was speaking glibly, and

did not know the true facts. [Or was speaking disinformationally. -jpg]

126. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1976.

127. Ibid., 415.

128. Similar paranoid outbreaks led to the dissolution of Dr. Richard

Neal's UFO abductee group in Los Angeles, according to a phone interview I had

with Dr. Neal.

129. Affidavit of Dr. Simpson-Kallas in the case of Sirhan-Sirhan, 1973;


130. All true MPs have experienced some form of abuse or trauma, psycho-

logical or physical, during childhood.

131. One was ritually abused in an occult setting. If I were a "spy-

chiatrist" scouting potential fodder for mind control experiments, I would

seek out abused children from military families. (A military background

would ensure that the "right" doctor gets access to the child.) Abduction

researchers should look for such a pattern.

132. I refer here to the vast upsurge in alien abductions which took

place that year; see generally Kevin Randle, THE OCTOBER SCENARIO (Middle

Coast, 1988). Of course, abductions (or, according to my hypothesis, dis-

guised mind control operations) occurred previous to this year.

133. John Marks interview with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks


134. Brenda Butler ET AL., SKY CRASH, expanded edition (London: Grafton

Books, 1986), 305-321, 354-355.

135. Telephone interview with Nancy Wright.

136. Telephone interview with Miranda Parks.

137. William Moore, "UFOs and the U.S. Government," FOCUS, vol. 4,

June 30, 1989. Moore's role in the affair strikes me as highly questionable,

even scandalous -- although at least here we have one instance of direct and

irrefutable "insider" testimony of government harassment.

138. Some have also raised questions about his psychiatric treatment

of Oswald assassin Jack Ruby. I find it odd that a CIA mind control veteran

-- who did NOT reside or practice in Dallas -- should have been assigned to the

Ruby case.

139. Samiel Chavkin, THE MIND STEALERS (New York: Houghton Mifflin,

1978), 96-107.

140. Raymond Fowler, THE ANDREASSON AFFAIR (New York: Prentice Hall,


141. New York: Warner Books, 1989; 198-202.

142. Ruth Montgomery, ALIENS AMONG US (Ballantine, 1985), 49. My article

"Psychiatric Abuse of UFO Witness," referred to earlier, also documents this


143. Chung-Kwang Chou and Arthur W. Guy, "Quantization of Microwave


FREQUENCY/MICROWAVES, edited by Dewitt G. Hazzard (U.S. Department of Health,

Education and Welfare, 1977).

144. MIAMI HERALD, May 28, 1984 and June 6, 1984; NATIONAL EXAMINER,

vol. 22, no. 18, April 30, 1985. Although the EXAMINER is a supermarket

tabloid, and therefore a questionable source, this periodical has rendered

researchers the service of printing the X-ray of Petit's brain, showing the

implant. [Ever heard of airbrushing? -jpg]

145. Los Angeles TIMES, March 28, 1988.

146. Raymond Fowler, THE ANDREASSON AFFAIR, PHASE TWO (Reward, 1982).

This book includes rare photographs of the unmarked helicopters which have

plagued this abduction victim and her family.

147. A mutual friend described for me an incident in which the former

SEAL, mistakenly perceiving a threat, almost instantly felled, and nearly

killed, a man twice his size. Whatever the truth of my informant's other

statements, he certainly has received advanced combat training.

148. Fenton Bresler, WHO KILLED JOHN LENNON? (New York: St. Martin's

Press, 1989), 45-46.

149. Bowart, OPERATION MIND CONTROL, 27-42.

150. Denise Winn, THE MANIPULATED MIND (London, Octagon Press, 1983),

72-73; Bresler, WHO KILLED JOHN LENNON?, 41; see generally: Peter Watson,

WAR ON THE MIND (London: Hutchison, 1978) (Watson broke the story on Narut

for the London TIMES).

151. Larry Collins, "Mind Control," PLAYBOY, January 1990.

152. John Marks interview with Milton Kline, December 22, 1977 (Marks


153. Richard A. Gabriel, NO MORE HEROES (New York: Hill and Wang, 1987),


154. Ibid., 150-151.

155. See generally: Mark Lane, CONVERSATIONS WITH AMERICANS (Simon and

Shuster, 1970); A.J. Langguth, HIDDEN TERRORS (New York: Pantheon, 1978).

156. John G. Fuller, THE INTERRUPTED JOURNEY (New York: Dell, 1966).

157. This detail plays a part in other abductions -- for example, it

crops up in the Betty Andreasson Luca case. See Raymond Fowler, THE ANDREAS-

SON AFFAIR (New York: Bantam, 1980), 50-51.

158. Stanton Friedman, for example; the reader is referred to his 1988

Whole Life Expo lecture, "UFOs: A Cosmic Watergate."

159. THE BODY ELECTRIC, 196-202.

160. The Fish map has received wide discussion; for a representative

sampling, the reader is directed to the aforementioned Friedman lecture (note

158); Terence Dickenson, "The Zeti Reticuli Incident," ASTRONOMY, December,

1974; Klass, UFO ABDUCTIONS: A DANGEROUS GAME, 20-23; and John Rimmer, THE

EVIDENCE FOR ALIEN ABDUCTIONS (Weillingborough: Aquarian, 1984), 88-92.

Incidentally, Klass has proposed to Friedman a test regarding the ability to

recall such material accurately under hypnotic regression; Friedman, for

reasons best known to himself, declined the offer to participate.

161. Jacques Vallee, DIMENSIONS (Chicago: Contemporary, 1988), 266.

162. See Rimmer, THE EVIDENCE FOR ALIEN ABDUCTIONS, 91-92. None of this

is meant to denigrate Marjorie Fish, whose work has received universal praise.

163. Fuller, THE INTERRUPTED JOURNEY, 18-19.

164. Athan G. Theoharis and John Stuart Cox, THE BOSS: J. EDGAR HOOVER

AND THE GREAT AMERICAN INQUISITION (Philadelphia: Temple University Press,

1978), 325; Chip Berlet, "The Hunt for the Red Menace," COVERT ACTION INFORM-

ATION BULLETIN, no. 31 (winter, 1989); J. Edgar Hoover, COINTELPRO (memo),

March 4, 1968.

165. For example, Delgado's work pre-dates the Hill incident. Moreover,

one of the few pages released on MKULTRA subproject 119 concerns "a critical

review of the literature and scientific developments related to the recording,

analysis and interpretation of bioelectric signals from the human organism,

and activation of human behavior by remote means." The review took place in

1960-61. Presumably, the CIA wanted to DO something with the information so


166. "UFO Abductions Workshop," Whole Life Expo, March, 1988.

167. Ludwig Mayer, DIE TECHNIC DER HYPNOSE (Munich: J.H. Lehmanns

Verlag, 1953), 225; quoted in: Heinz E. Hammerschlag (translation: John Cohen)

HYPNOTISM AND CRIME (Hollywood: Wilshire Book Company, 1957), 24-25.

168. Numerous articles discuss this possibility; see, for example,

William C. Coe ET AL. "An Approach Toward Isolating Factors that Influence


EXPERIMENTAL HYPNOSIS, 1972, vol XX, no. 2, 118-131, as well as other

reports in that issue. The difference between the laboratory and the "field"

settings may account for the success of Mayer's experiment and the apparent

failure of the "aliens." [Or perhaps Hopkins' informant REALIZED he was in

Miniluv and his autonomy was on the line; he reacted against this standard

Gestapo procedure as best he could: by turning the gun on O'Brien. -jpg]

169. For a description of a quite similar experiment conducted under

CIA auspices in 1954, see "CIA able to control minds by hypnosis, data shows,"

THE WASHINGTON POST, February 19, 1978.

170. Abductee interview, "Veronica." The reader will, I hope, forgive

my use of a pseudonym here. For the most part, I hope to deal in this work

with published cases. Suffice it to say, Veronica's testimony proved

fascinating, troubling, convoluted, problematical; in spite of all the

questions raised by this case, I still believe it to have substantial bearing

on my thesis. The reader will forgive me for severing relations with this

abductee before completing an investigation; she keeps a mini-armory next to

her bed.

171. Abductee interview, "Veronica," At one point, she ran an informal

abductee/contactee group; as a result, she was able to describe many other

cases to me. [Pseudomemories programmed into her? -jpg]

172. One ARTICHOKE document explicitly details a failed attempt to use

hypnosis to induce the assassination of a foreign leader. The document is

undated; the experiment took place January 8-January 15, 1954. Document

reproduced in CIA PAPERS, vol. 1 (Ann Arbor, MI: Capitol Information Asso-

ciates, 1986),39-41.

173. John Marks interview of Prof. Jack Tracktir (Marks files).

174. Jenny Randles, ABDUCTIONS (London: Robert Hale, 1988), 52-53.

175. As in, for example, the Palle Hardrup affair.

176. Private correspondence, Robert Durant to the author.

177. Abductee interview, "Polly." I won't give the facial details here;

suffice it to say that this abductor, like Margary's (noted earlier), has

something of the smell of greasepaint about him.

178. The base is mantioned in Ann Druffel's and D. Scott Rogo's THE

TUJUNGA CANYON CONTACTS (New York: Signet, 1989) [expanded edition], 157.

179. On the other hand, Armstrong asks us to accept his own channelled

material, so he would have an awkward time should he choose to challenge the

"psychic impressions" of others.

180. Jacques Vallee, MESSENGERS OF DECEPTION (Berkeley: And/Or Press,

1979), 192-193.


UFO CONGRESS (New York: Warner Books, 1980), 307.

182. For information of Pelley, see John Roy Carlson, UNDER COVER (New

York: Dutton, 1943).

183. Gerald B. Bryan, PSYCHIC DICTATORSHIP IN AMERICA (Los Angeles:

Truth Research, 1940). An essential book-length expose of Ballardism. One

of Bryan's sources alleges that Ballard, before founding the I AM group, may

have practiced some variety of black magic.

184. The student should carefully compare the I AM dogma with the

available information on pre-Third Reich occultism; the best sources are James


(La Salle, Illinois: Open Court Publishing, 1976).

185. Vallee, MESSENGERS OF DECEPTION, 192-194.

186. Even a cursory examination of Williamson's SECRET OF THE ANDES

(London: Neville Superman, 1961), written under the pseudonym Brother Philip,

will reveal the I AM connections.

187. Personal sources. Van Tassell's "Integration," a domed structure

allegedly built under extra-terrestrial guidance (located near 29 Palms,

California) prominently displays, to this day, key I AM artifacts such as the

portraits of Jesus and Saint Germain (commissioned by Ballard).

188. "The Afghan Arms Pipeline," COVERT ACTION INFORMATION BULLETIN, no.

30 (summer, 1988).

189. Telephone interview with John Judge.

190. Village of Oak Creek, Arizona: Entheos, 1989, 119. I can't recall

ever encountering another book title which contained so many grammatical

errors. Armstrong's accomplishment is genuinely impressive.

191. For further information on I AM, Prophet's organization, saucer

cults, and other groups, see the appropriate sections of J. Gordon Melton's


192. Ruth Montgomery, ALIENS AMONG US (New York: Ballantine, 1985),


193. Penny Harper, "Are Aliens Taking Over the Earth?" WHOLE LIFE TIMES,

January 1990.

194. John Keel, WHY UFOS: OPERATION TROJAN HORSE (New York: Manor Books,

1970) [paperback edition], 228.

195. Hickson and Mendez, UFO CONTACT AT PASCAGOULA, 242.

196. Strieber, COMMUNION, 134; TRANSFORMATION, 109.

197. "Contactee: Firsthand," UFO magazine, vol. 4, no. 2, 1989.

198. Telephone conversation, Tom Adams.

199. Ed Conroy, REPORT ON COMMUNION (New York: William Morrow, 1989),


200. "Contactee: Firsthand," UFO magazine, vol. 3, no. 3.

201. New York: Zebra, 1971. See especially note 2, Chap. 9.


ACID DREAMS, by Martin A. Lee and Bruce Shlain (Grove, 1985). Outstanding

work on MKULTRA and drugs.

THE BODY ELECTRIC, by Robert Becker (Morrow, 1985). Important.

THE BRAIN CHANGERS, by Maya Pines (Signet, 1973). Outdated, but an excellent

chapter on the stimoceiver and related technologies.

BRAIN CONTROL, by Elliot Valenstein (John Wiley and Sons, 1973). Highly

conservative; outdated; still worth reading.

CIA PAPERS, compiled by Capitol Information Associates (POB 8275, Ann Arbor,

Michigan, 48107). Interesting selection of MKULTRA documents.

THE CONTROL OF CANDY JONES, by Donald Bain (Playboy Press, 1976). Mandatory


HUMAN DRUG TESTING BY THE CIA, hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and

Scientific Research on the Committee on Human Resources, United States

Senate (Government Printing Office, 1977).

HYPNOTISM, by George Estabrooks (Dutton, 1957). See especially the chapters

on hypnosis in warfare and crime. Some modern experts in clinical

hypnosis decry Estabrooks' work. These "experts" tend to have a history

of funding by CIA cut-outs and military intelligence. I suspect they

denounce Estabrooks not because his work was shoddy, but because he let

the cat out of the bag.


of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee of the

Judiciary, United States Senate (Government Printing Office, 1974).

MEGABRAIN, by Michael Hutchison (Ballantine, 1986). The only popular book

on modern mind machines.

MESSENGERS OF DECEPTION, by Jacques Vallee (And/Or, 1979). Vallee has been

criticized, correctly, for including in this book invented "conver-

sations" with a composite character he calls Major Murphy. But the

section on cults in this book bears a haunting resemblance to stories

I have heard in my own investigations.

THE MIND MANIPULATORS, by Opton and Scheflin (Paddington Press, 1978). Con-

servative, but extremely useful as a reference work.

MIND WARS, by Ronald McCrae (St. Martin's Press, 1984).

OPERATION MIND CONTROL, by Walter Bowart (Dell, 1978). The best single volume

on the subject. Difficult to find; indeed, this book's rapid disappear-

ance from bookstores and libraries has aroused the suspicions of some

researchers. (Tom David Books, POB 1107, Aptos, CA 95001, carries this


PHYSICAL CONTROL OF THE MIND, by Jose Delgado (Harper and Row, 1969). Outdated

but still essential.

PROJECT MKULTRA, joint hearing before the Select Committee on Health and

Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States

Senate (Government Printing Office, 1977).

PSYCHIC WARFARE: FACT OR FICTION? edited by John White (Aquarian, 1988). See

especially Michael Rossman's contribution.

PSYCHOTECHNOLOGY, Robert L. Schwitzgebel and Ralph K. Schwitzgebel (Holt,

Rhinehart and Winston, 1973).

THE SCIENTIST, by John Lilly (expanded edition: Ronin, 1988). Bizarre --

Lilly is an ex-"brainwashing" specialist who claims to be in contact

with aliens. Is he controlled or controlling?


invaluable book. However, many people have made the mistake of assuming

it tells the full story. It does not.

WERE WE CONTROLLED? by Lincoln Lawrence (University Books, 1967). Explores

possible connections to the JFK assassination. Dr. Petter Lindstrom's

endorsement of this work makes it mandatory reading.

WHO KILLED JOHN LENNON? by Fenton Bresler (St. Martin's Press, 1989).

Interesting thesis concerning the possible use of mind control on Mark

David Chapman. Better in its analysis of Chapman than in its history

of mind control. In my own work, I have encountered data which may

help confirm Bresler's theory.

THE ZAPPING OF AMERICA, by Paul Brodeur (MacLeod [Canadian edition], 1976).

Contains a good chapter on microwave mind control technology.

The important stories of Martti Koski and Robert Naeslund can be obtained by

sending three dollars to Martti Koski, Kiilinpellontie 2, 21290 Rusko,

FINLAND. Koski's description of his "programming" sessions should not be

taken at face value; we cannot always trust the perception of someone whose

perception has been altered. His research into the technology of mind control

is solid.